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Protected Areas Network in Assam

Protected Areas Network in Assam

Assam Geography - Assamexam

Protected Areas Network in Assam

The Protected Area Network in Assam occupies 3925-sq. km. area and constitute about 5 % of the State’s geographical area. The PAN includes 5 National Parks and 17 Wildlife sanctuaries as well as 3 proposed Wildlife Sanctuaries, 4 Tiger Reserves, 5 Elephant Reserves, 2 Biosphere Reserves and 2 World Natural Heritage Sites and they play very important role in in-situ conservation of biodiversity.

Kaziranga National Park home to great Indian one horned rhinoceros. Besides, wild buffaloes, swamp deer, hog deer, sambar, elephant, tiger and leopard are also found in KNP. The faunal population of KNP has 35 species of mammals, 42 species of fishes, and 254 species of birds including Bengal florican. Kaziranga National Park in also a “World heritage site” and a” Tiger reserve”.

Manas National Park is also a Biosphere Reserve and forms a contiguous linear belt along the foot of Himalayas. The floral diversity includes 543 plant species. The faunal diversity is represented by 60 mammalian species, 42 species of reptiles, 7 species of amphibians, 5 fish species, 103 invertebrate species and 327 species of birds. Translcation of rhinos from Pobitora and Manas is being undertaken in stages to reintroduce rhinos in Manas.

Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve includes Dibru- Saikhowa wild life Sanctuary and biogeographically exhibits the properties of both the Indian and Malayan sub-regions. It consists of a number of “ecotones” between floral communities of riparian and grassland habitats as well as deciduous forest and wet evergreen forest types. This biosphere reserve is home to many important faunal species including white wing wood duck, hoolock gibbon, wild buffalo, several species of turtles, Gangetic dolphin, golden mahaseer etc. The documented animal population includes 3 species of amphibians, 22 species of reptiles, 25 species of birds, 25 species of mammals, 62 species of fishes etc. 

Wildlife census figures of flagship species in Assam
  • Elephants (in 2017): 5,719
  • Rhinos ( in 2012): 2,700
  • Tiger (in 2010 ): 143 [ This no. is increasing fast ]
  • Swamp Deer ( in 2011): 1,169


National Parks of Assam
  • Kaziranga N.P
  • Manas N.P
  • Dibru – Saikhowa N.P
  • Nameri N.P
  • Rajiv Gandhi Orang N.P
Wildlife Sanctuaries Of Asam:
  • Garampani W.L.S
  • Laokhowa W.L.S
  • Bornadi W.L.S
  • Chakrasila W.L.S
  • Burachapori W.L.S
  • Panidehing W.L.S
  • Hollongapar Gibbon W.L.S
  • Pabitora W.L.S
  • Sonai Rupai W.L.S
  • Bherjan – Borajan – Padumoni W.L.S
  • East K. Anglong W.L.S
  • Nambor W.L.S
  • Marat Longri W.L.S
  • Nambor – Doigrung W.L.S
  • Amchang W.L.S
  • Dehing Patkai W.L.S
  • Borail W.L.S
  • Deepar Beel W.L.S
  • Bordoibam Bilmukh Bird W.L.S. (Proposed)
  • North K. Anglong W.L.S. (Proposed)


Vulture conservation and breeding centre (Rani)

In view of the depletion of the global population of vultures, the Govt. of Assam in collaboration with the BNHS, Bombay has established a Vulture conservation & Breeding centre at Rani. The objectives of the project is to have 50 pairs of Vultures for breeding with the ultimate goal to release than in the wild.


Environment & Ecology e-Book PDF | Geography of Assam e-Book PDF


Soil Types of Assam

Assam Geography - Assamexam

Soil Types of Assam


The soils of Assam are very rich in content of nitrogen and organic matter. The alluvial soils of the Brahmaputra and the Barak valley are highly fertile and are very much suitable for raising of varieties of crops round the year such as cereals, pulses, oilseeds, plantation crops etc. The well drained, deep, acidic alluvial soils of upper Assam with good proportion of phosphoric content are mostly suitable for the plantation. New alluvial soils occurring in the charlands of the Brahmaputra are most suitable for growing oilseeds, pulses and rabi crops. The alluvium of the plains offers excellent opportunity for cultivating rice and vegetable. The soils occurring in the upper reaches of the hill slopes are very suitable for horticulture and plantation crops.

The diversified geological conditions, topographical characteristics, climatic situations and vegetation types have favour the formation of different types of soil in the hills, piedmonts, plateaus and plains. The soils of Assam may thus generally be divided into four groups, viz.

  1. Alluvial soils
  2. Piedmont soils
  3. Hill soils
  4. Lateritic soils.


Alluvial Soils

The alluvial soils are extensively distributed over the Brahmaputra and Barak plain. These soils are very fertile as they formed from the alluvium deposits, deposited by the rivers Brahmaputra, Barak and their tributaries. The alluvial soils of Assam can be further be divided into two sub-types base on some micro differences in character such as – younger alluvium and old alluvium.

The younger alluvial soil occurs in an extensive belt of the north-bank and south-bank plains including the active flood plains of the Brahmaputra and the Barak rivers. This soil characterized by recent deposition of alluvium, moderately deep to very deep with grey to molted grey colour. It is mostly composed of sandy to silty loams and slightly acidic in nature. On the riverbanks it is less acidic and sometimes neutral or slightly alkaline. The soil lack in prifile development and is deficient in phosphoric acid, nitrogen and humus.

The old alluvial soil occurs in some patches of Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamrup, Darrang, Sonitpur, Lakhimpur and dhemaji districts between the northern piedmont soil belt and the southern new alluvial soils of the Brahmaputra valley. In the south bank districts of the valley it occurs in a narrow belt bounded between the southern hill soils and northern new alluvial soils. In the Kopili plain covering Nagaon district the old alluvium finds wider extension.

The Barak plain, on the other hand, has some elongated patches of old alluvial soil confined between the new alluvial soils of the active floodplain and the hill soils boardering Mizoram. Generally the old alluvial soil is very deep, brownish to yellowish brown with texture of fine loams to coarse loams and is slightly to moderately acidic.


Piedmont Soils

The piedmont soils are confined to the northern narrow zone along the piedmont zone of the Himalayan foothills. These soils comprise the Bhabar soil and the Tarai soil, covering respectively the Bhabar and the Tarai belt of the Brahmaputra valley.

The Bhabar soil occurs in the narrow belt along the Assam-Arunachal boarder extending east up to the river Subansiri’ is characterized by unassorted detritus of boulders, pebbles, cobbles, sand and silts. This soil is deep and fine to clay loamy in texture.

The Tarai soil occurring just south of the Bhabar soil extends up to Dihang river in some discontinuous narrow patches.This soil varies from sandy to silty loams that remain saturated and support tall grasses in a series of swamps.


Hill Soils

The hill soils are generally found in the southern hilly terrains of the state. The fertility of these soils defers greatly in different regions. These soils are rich in nitrogen and organic matters. On the basis of the physical texture and chemical composition, the hill soils may be divided into – red sandy soils and red loamy soils.

The red sandy soils are distributed covering as narrow belt along the Assam- Meghalaya border, the Karbi Plateau, southern part of Barail range of the N.C.Hill district and some parts of the foothills along the eastern border of the Cachar district. This soil is very deep and well drained, brownish to yellowish in colour, strongly to moderately acidic with high organic content.

The red loamy soils, on the other hand, occurs in the narrow southern foothill belt running along the Assam’s boarder with Arunachal and Nagaland and also in the southern fringes of the Karbi Plateau and the Barail hills of N.C.Hills district. These soils are very deep, dark grayish brown to yellowish red and fine to coarse loamy. Red loamy soils are slightly to moderately acidic and these lack in nitrogen, phosphoric acid, humus and lime.


Lateritic Soils

The lateritic soils in the state extensively occurs almost entirely over the N.C.Hills district covering some parts of southern Karbi Plateau while few patches are confined to eastern margin of the Hamren sub-division of Karbe Anglong district, southern boarder of Golaghat district and the northern part of the Barak plain along the foothills of the Barail range. These soils are dark and finely texture with heavy loams and deficient in nitrogen, potash, phosphoric acid and lime.



Riverbank erosion during high flood period in the valley is a regular annual feature. Over bank flood due to breaches in the embankment render the fertile cultivable land unsuitable for crop production due to deposition of coarse sand on the surface to a variable depth. As per Assam Government Revenue Dept. records, an area of 6116 hectares of land was affected by soil erosion in Upper Brahmaputra Valley and North Bank Plain zone during 1994.

The highly productive and fertile soils of Assam are now facing the serious problem of soil erosion like other parts of the country. Under heavy precipitation and humid climate loss of topsoil through surface run-off is the most common type of soil erosion in the entire state.

The problem of topsoil erosion is severe in the plain during the flood season. It is estimated that nearly 3.2 million hectares of land of the plain districts of the state are vulnerable to topsoil erosion with varying intensity. Terrain deformation through mass movement is another type of soil degradation, which is primarily confined to the hill districts of Karbi Anglong and N.C. Hills covering an area of about 1.53 million hectares. Another important type of soil erosion in the state, which assumed serious proportion in the recent time, is the bank erosion by the rivers. It is observed that at some places, a few kilometers of bank along the villages, fertile agricultural lands and roads are being eroded by the rivers. Majuli, the largest river island of the world is now seriously affected by the erosion and virtually facing the threat to existence. The extent of loss to the bank erosion varies from year to year depending on the severity of floods in the state.



Land is laid waste by destructive means of plantation and polluted by the disposal of domestic and industrial waste. Jhum cultivation, new habitations and settlements, big reservoirs and dams made for various uses such as irrigation, water supply and power, etc. play a role is destroying and adversely changing the land surface. Unscientific mining and extraction of raw materials from the ground have lasting damage on land. Sludge from the sewage plant is deposited on the land surface and which affect the fertility of the soil.


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Elephant Census 2017 Highlight & State of Elephants in India

Elephant Census 2017

In the first-ever synchronised all-India Elephant Census 2017, the population of India’s national heritage animal, the elephant, is at 27, 312 across 23 states.

This means the population has decreased by about 3,000, compared to last census in 2012. In 2012, the population of Asian elephant, an endangered and protected species in India, was estimated at around 30,000 (29,391-30,711) and in 2007 it was estimated at about 27,670 (27,657-27,682).

While numbers are lower than in 2012, previous counts were not synchronised & may have had duplication. Experts say parallels cannot be drawn, because in the 2012 count, various states used different methodologies and the effort was not synchronised across the country; errors and duplication could have led to overestimation.

As per the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the population of Asian elephants was about 41,410 to 52,345 and of that India alone accounts for nearly 60%.

Director of the Project Elephant, R.K Shrivastav, said he is hopeful that the exercise will set new standards in population estimation of elephants in India and in other countries as well. “Quality of data collected during the elephant census will be high. It will be helpful in effective planning of various issues relating to elephant conservation in the country,”.

India started Project Elephant in 1992 to protect the Asian elephant, its habitat and corridors and address the man-elephant conflict. Since then, the government has been counting the elephant population every four to five years.

At present, there are 32 elephant reserves across India, covering over 58,000 sq. km. But loss and degradation of wildlife habitats, including the elephant corridors, are increasing the human-elephant conflict.


Geographical Distribution 

The highest population was in southern region (11,960) followed by the northeast region (10,139), east-central region (3,128) and northern region (2,085).

Country’s over 55 percent of elephant population is in Southern region and mainly in two states of Karnataka and Kerala.

Among the states, the highest population was recorded in Karnataka (6,049), followed by Assam (5,719) and Kerala (3,054).

In North-East Region, Assam has the maximum number of elephants, 5,719, followed by 1,754 in Meghalaya and 1,614 in Arunachal Pradesh. The population of elephants in north Bengal has been included in the Northeast population.

Overall elephant density of 0.23 elephants per square km in Assam. In Assam, elephants are found in 36 forest divisions. A total area of 11,601 square km was sampled for block count direct method for the state and the elephant density of 0.38 animals per square kilometre was estimated for this state.

In Meghalaya, much of the elephant habitat area is under community forest. A total of 232 blocks were sampled in the state and the overall density was 0.16 elephants per square kilometre.


Recent Initiatives

Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate change (MoEFCC), Dr Harsh Vardhan launched a nationwide campaign, “Gaj Yatra”, on the occasion of World Elephant Day on 12 August, to protect elephants, which will cover 12 elephant range states.

The environment minister also released a document—“Agreed points of action on trans-boundary conservation of elephants by India and Bangladesh”—which highlighted the issues on which the two nations have achieved consensus. The agreed points included constitution of a joint working group within 60 days to evolve and develop protocols and standard operating procedures for trans-boundary conservation and management of elephants.

It also called for facilitating trans-boundary migration along the India-Bangladesh border, establishment of response teams to guide such elephants which may stray into human settlements, ensure sharing of information, discouraging erection of electric fences for protection of agriculture and horticulture crops in the areas falling in identified migratory corridors to prevent death of elephants from electrocution and steps to protect, improve and expand natural habitats for elephants.

As per official numbers, in last four years, one human life was lost every day due to the human-elephant conflict. A total of 1,465 humans have been killed in the last four years (2013-14 to 2016-17).

Governments, both at the centre and in the states, have been making efforts to address the issue, but due to the huge pressure for development, natural habitats have suffered. They have even used methods like beehives and chilli fences to prevent the human-elephant conflict—to limited success.


World Elephant Day

World Elephant Day is a yearly worldwide occasion celebrated over the world on August 12, to focus the attention of various stakeholders in supporting various conservation policies to help protect elephants, including improving enforcement policies to prevent illegal poaching and trade in ivory, conserving elephant habitats, providing better treatment for captive elephants and reintroducing captive elephants into sanctuaries.

The objective of World Elephant Day is to make mindfulness about the predicament of elephants and to share learning and positive answers for the better care and administration of captive and wild elephants.

African elephantsare listed as “vulnerable” and Asian elephants as “endangered” in the IUCN Red List of threatened species.

Key Fact: As per the available population estimates, there are about 400,000 African elephants and 40,000 Asian elephants.



Rhinoceros Conservation – A success story

Assam Geography - Assamexam


Rhinoceros Conservation - A success story

From 75 in 1905, Indian rhinos numbered over 2,700 by 2012

From a population of barely 75 in 1905, Indian rhinos numbered over 2,700 by 2012, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India), a global wildlife advocacy.

The Indian rhino was moved from its status of endangered (since 1986) to vulnerable in 2008 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This was after a survey in 2007 by the IUCN Asian Rhino Specialist Group, which estimated that there were close to 2,575 one-horned rhinos in the wild, spread across parts of India and Nepal, with India being home to 2,200 rhinos, or over 85 per cent of the population.

Known by the scientific name of Rhinoceros unicornis, these animals are mega-herbivores, part of a small and disappearing group that weigh over 1,000 kilograms and include the elephant and the hippopotamus. These large herbivores are shapers of their landscape and environment, and the rhino may well be a keystone species – known to have a disproportionately large impact on its environment relative to its population – according to research conducted in South Africa’s Kruger National Park in 2014. By eating only certain kinds of grass – and trampling upon dense vegetation – rhinos indirectly affect smaller herbivores in their area, creating a cascade of effects that, in turn, affects other species as well. The Indian rhinoceros is also known to help in seed dispersion, moving large tree seeds from forested areas to grasslands through excreta.

The habitat of the Indian rhino once extended from Pakistan into northern India and modern-day Myanmar, reaching into Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. However, loss of large tracts of habitat and extensive poaching for its horn – believed to have medicinal and aphrodisiacal properties – led to its extinction in all these countries, except in India and Nepal. By the 1900s, only between 100 and 200 rhinos survived in the wild. From there to its current population of approximately 3,500 the world over is a remarkable turnaround, the International Rhino Foundation says.

In India, rhinos can now be found in parts of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Assam. In 2012, more than 91 per cent of Indian rhinos lived in Assam, according to WWF-India data. Within Assam, rhinos are concentrated within Kaziranga national park, with a few in Pobitara wildlife sanctuary.

Kaziranga NP is home to more than 91 per cent of Assam’s rhinos – and more than 80 per cent of India’s count — with a 2015 population census by Kaziranga park authorities revealing 2,401 rhinos within the park.


Poaching - Illegal Trading of Rhino parts

A rhino horn could fetch as much as $60,000 per pound in the contraband market in 2015, largely in countries such as China and Vietnam, according to a report in The Washington Times.

Although rhino poaching peaked in India in 2013, when 41 of the herbivores were killed, it has declined since, largely because of better policing and protection by the Assam government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), according to Tito Joseph, programme manager of the anti-poaching programme at the Wildlife Protection Society of India, an NGO.

But outside the park, transport of poached horns is not adequately tracked, said Joseph, a key factor being regional insurgency. During the 1980s and 1990s, poachers exploited the destruction of park infrastructure during conflicts and killed almost the entire population of rhinos in many of Assam’s protected areas, such as Manas, Laokhowa and Burachapori.

Rhinos are solitary creatures. Each consumes almost 40 kg of vegetation a day. However, within parks of Assam with a large rhino population, animals have been seen in groups which is an indication of lack of space. These observations are coupled with increasing fights for dominance among rhinos, a competition for available space.

In 2015, Kaziranga N P had 2,401 rhinos. While Pabitoram, in 2012, with an area of 38.8 sq km, had 100 rhinos.

According to some estimates, based on observation, the threshold population of Kaziranga is estimated at 2,500, while Pabitora’s threshold is 100. Exceeding carrying capacity also means that the rhinos are more likely to venture out of protected areas, which increases chances of human-animal conflict.


Indian Rhino Vision 2020 programme (IRV2020) - Create new habitats

So, rhinos need to move to ecologically similar but distant areas to ensure species survival, according to the Indian Rhino Vision 2020 programme (IRV2020), a collaborative effort between various organisations, including the International Rhino Foundation, Assam’s Forest Department, Bodoland Territorial Council, WWF-India, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

The first successful attempt to move rhinos out of Assam and re-introduce them into a similar habitat was made in 1984 in Uttar Pradesh’s Dudhwa national park, which has 33 rhinos now.

IRV2020 hopes to raise the number of rhinos in Assam to 3,000 by 2020 and spread them over seven of the state’s protected areas: Kaziranga, Pobitora, Orang national park, Manas national park, Laokhowa wildlife sanctuary, Burachapori wildlife sanctuary and Dibru Saikhowa wildlife sanctuary.



APSC Recruitment 2018 – Senior Information & Public Relation Officer (6 Posts)

Assam Public Service Commission invites application for the under-mentioned posts under Assam Government in the scale of pay as indicated below and carrying usual allowances as admissible under Rules of the Govt. of Assam,
Name of post: Senior Information & Public Relation Officer under Information and Public Relation Department, Assam.
No of posts:
 6 (Six)

Pay: Rs. 30,000/- to 1,10,000/- (Grade Pay of Rs. 13,900/-)
Age: Candidates must not be less than 21(twenty one) years and more than 38 ( Thirty eight) years of age on 01/01/2018. The upper age limit is relaxable in case of SC/ ST candidates upto 5 (five) years.

Educational Qualification:
(i) A graduate in Science/Arts/Commerce from a recognized University only will be acceptable.
(ii) A degree/diploma in Journalism or in Mass Communication from an Institute recognized by University Grants Commission (UGC) or at least five years experience in Journalism in a responsible capacity public relations organizations/Government Public Relations Department.
(iii) A good command over English.
(iv) Knowledge of Assamese or any other regional language or local language of the state.
(v) Knowledge of Computer Application.

Application Fee :
 As per Govt. Notification No. FEG.32/2016/8-A dated Dispur the 28th October, 2016 the Application Fees for all post under the State Govt. of Assam shown as below:

1. For General Candidate : Rs.250/- (Rupees two hundred and fifty) only.
2. For SC/ST/OBC/MOBC : Rs.150/- (Rupees one hundred and fifty) only.
3. Candidates having BPL Certificate : Nil (Candidate having BPL certificate should produce their photocopy of certificate along with the Application Form).

Fees should be deposited only through Treasury Challan in the Head of Account “NON TAX REVENUE, OTHER NON TAX REVENUE 0051 PSC, 105 STATE PSC APPLICATION FEE RECEIPT OF APSC” showing name of post and department. Original copy of Treasury Challan should be submitted along with the application form.

How to apply: The name of the post applied for should be clearly written in “bold letters” in the Envelope containing the application form and it should be addressed to the Deputy Secretary, APSC, Jawaharnagar, Khanapara, Guwahati-22.

Application form may be obtained by downloading the same from the APSC’s (Application form DR). The last date of receiving duly filled up application form in the Commission’s office is fixed on 17/04/2018 during office hours.
Last Date: 17/04/2018.

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Human Development Report of Assam

Assam Economy - Assamexam

Human Development Report of Assam


Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq for the UNDP.

HDI has three components denoting three basic capabilities related to health, education and living standard. The realised levels of achievement in the three components are measured by a set of indicators. Over the last two decades, these indicators have undergone several changes to reflect the responsive and evolving nature of the approach. For instance, in the education dimension, indicators of literacy rate and combined gross enrollment ratio have been replaced, in 2010, by mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling. These changes became imperative as countries progressed along literacy and enrollment over the last two decades, reducing the distinguishing power of these previous indicators.

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:

  • A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
  • Education index: Mean years of schooling (MYS) and Expected years of schooling (EYS)
  • A decent standard of living: Per capita Income

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

  1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) – LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.
  2. Education Index(EI)
    1. Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI)-Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
    2. Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) – Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master’s degree in most countries.
  3. Income Index (II) – II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the Geometric Mean of the previous three normalized indices.

Human Development Indicators and Indices in Assam


Life Expectancy at Birth

The indicator of life expectancy at birth is used to measure the realised achievement in the health dimension, that is, ‘to be able to live a long life’. The life expectancy at birth denotes the number of years that a child can expect to live at the time of birth, given the age-specific mortality rates in the population. The life expectancy, however, is an indicator of very long-term improvement in health.

In India, data on life expectancy at birth are available through Sample Registration System (SRS) only up to the state level usually disaggregated at the levels of male-female and rural-urban. The latest available SRS data (2006-10) estimate life expectancy at birth in Assam at 62 years (male 61 years and female 63.2 years) putting the state in the bottom echelon.

This low achievement of the state in health functioning is consequent on high infant and child mortality together with high adult mortality in the state since life expectancy at birth depends on an age-specific mortality pattern. Low probability in child survival adversely affects the life expectancy at birth in the state.

Based on HDR survey data, the life expectancy at birth in the state is found to be 54 years. District level estimates of life expectancy at birth reveal that life expectancy varies widely across districts. The highest life expectancy is estimated in Kamrup (71.88) while the lowest is found in Cachar (40.76).  Relatively higher life expectancies are found to be in the districts of Barpeta, Chirang, Dima Hasao, Karbi Anglong, Goalpara and Marigaon. Similarly, relatively lower life expectancies are found in districts of Baksa, Karimganj, Hailakandi, tinsukia and Sonitpur

The life expectancy in rural areas is found to be lower (53.39) than in urban areas (57.97). Religion wise, it is found that Christians have higher life expectancy (58.37) compared to Hindus (54.62) and Muslims (52.98). Moreover, the life expectancy among Other Backward Classes (OBCs) is found to be much lower (51.75) than the state average (54.0). Across spatial diversity categories, life expectancy was found to be the highest in the hill blocks (67.42). On the other hand, border, flood-affected and tea garden blocks have been found to be disadvantaged in terms of life expectancies.


Mean Years of Schooling

Mean Years of Schooling (MYS) is one of the two indicators used to measure educational achievement in HDRs by UNDP. It replaced the literacy rate as an indicator under the education dimension in 2010. MYS indicates the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population. Usually, MYS is estimated for populations aged 25 years and older, which is also the indicator used in the calculation of the HDI by UNDP.

MYS is derived from data on educational attainment. For obtaining estimates of MYS, distribution of population by age and educational attainment is required at a given point of time. The officially required number of years for each level of education is then applied as a multiplier to the age-education frequency distribution to get the mean years from the distribution.

Based on the HDR survey data, the MYS for Assam is estimated at 6.1710. Given the normative goal of 15 years which ensures secondary level of schooling11, the present educational achievement in the state is only about 40 per cent of the goal12. Besides, there is a clear rural-urban divide with MYS in rural areas at 5.70 and that in urban areas at 8.59.

The second visible divide is observed in male- female achievement levels: the MYS of males is estimated at 6.93 against the MYS of females at 5.32. Differences in MYS are also prominent along religious and social categories. The MYS amongst Hindus is found to be 6.85 compared to 4.49 amongst Muslims.

Similarly, MYS is found to be lower (5.92) amongst SCs compared to other social categories. In terms of MYS, the most disadvantaged section is found to be rural Muslim women – their MYS is estimated as a mere 3.3. However, the estimated MYS for rural Muslim women varies widely across districts, the lowest being observed in Darrang (1.55 only) and the highest is found in Sibsagar (7.98).

District wise estimates show that MYS ranges from 3.77 to 9.16. The highest MYS of 9.16 is found in Kamrup (M) while the lowest 3.77 is found in Darrang. In terms of MYS in rural areas, Darrang again figures at the bottom with 3.59 followed by Dhubri with 4.09. The highest MYS in rural areas is observed in Sibsagar (8.26) followed by Jorhat (7.20) and Nalbari (7.07). As far as the MYS among females is concerned, the lowest is found again in Darrang (2.87) followed by Baksa (3.51) and Dhubri (3.50). The highest MYS in females is obtained in Kamrup Metro (8.35) followed by Sibsagar (7.79) and Jorhat (7.22). This notwithstanding, the highest gender gaps in MYS are also observed in Sibsagar, Kamrup (M) and Jorhat.

Expected Years of Schooling

The second indicator of educational achievement in HDI is Expected Years of Schooling (EYS) which replaced the gross enrolment ratio in 2010. Nevertheless, EYS is built upon enrolment rates. EYS is a measure of the number of years of schooling a child at the start of his or her education is expected to receive, if current rates of enrolment are maintained throughout the child’s life13. The advantages of using this indicator are that it represents a measure which takes into account both stock and flow dimensions of the school system and it does not require standardisation in comparing countries or societies with distinct age structures. The indicator is intended to represent knowledge accumulation under the formal school system where higher value of EYS is believed to denote higher accumulated knowledge.

For Assam, the estimated EYS is found to be 11.85 years15. This indicates that, on an average, given the present enrolment pattern in the state, a child is expected to complete at least the secondary level when he or she starts going to school. There are, however, many divides. The EYS in rural areas is found to be 11.80 which is less than the EYS of 12.20 estimated in urban areas. The EYS for males is found to be 11.72 against that of females which is 11.99. Similar divides are also noticed across religious and social categories.

District level estimates reveal that EYS in the state varies in the range 10.98 to 12.57. The lowest if found in Hailakandi (10.98) and the highest is found in Chirang (12.57). Similarly, tea garden areas and areas with multiple diversities have relatively low EYS compared to other spatial diversity categories.


Per Capita Income 

Income per capita is considered as an ‘indirect’ indicator of human development. The first HDR of UNDP (1990) observes that an indicator of ‘command over resources needed for a decent living’ requires data on access to land, credit, income and other sources. However, there is a dearth of reliable data covering all these aspects. Since data on GDP per capita are widely available, this indicator is taken to represent the income dimension of human development. In 2010, instead of GDP per capita, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita is taken as the indicator. For allowing cross-country comparison, the GNI per capita of the countries was adjusted by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) ratios.

However, income has the peculiar property of having diminishing contribution to human development as income rises. Therefore, income needs ‘treatment’ to reflect such a feature and, over the last two decades, various treatments have been applied in HDRs16. The 2010 method uses logarithmic transformation over income values to reflect this property. As income rises, a marginal change in logarithmic transformation of income declines giving lower weights to higher income.

In a state HDR, ideal replacement for GNI per capita is taken to be the Net District Domestic Product (NDDP) measured in constant prices. However, since NDDPs are district aggregates, the underlying distribution is not known. To make the indicator consistent with inequality measures, instead of NDDP the average per capita annual income estimates of the districts obtained from the HDR survey are used in the report. This also allows other disaggregation. It has been found that the estimated Per Capita Annual Income (PCAI) from the household level data fairly match the latest (2012-13) data on NDDP (2004-05 prices) for the districts. There are obvious gaps in PCAI in rural and urban sectors. The average PCAI in rural areas is only about 40 per cent of that of the urban areas (INR 22,087 in rural against INR 56,157 in urban areas). It could further be found that the average PCAI of Christians (INR 16,068) is the lowest followed by Muslims (INR 18,228). The average PCAI of Hindus is found as INR 28,092. A similar income gap prevails amongst different social categories as well. The average PCAI of STs is the lowest (INR. 21,445) compared to that of other social categories.

District wise, the highest PCAI was found in Kamrup (Metro) (INR 63,444) followed by Jorhat (INR 38,664). The lowest PCAI was obtained in Hailakandi (INR 16,632) followed by Dhubri (INR 16,336). In general, it is found that low PCAIs in border areas, areas with multiple spatial diversities and amongst religious minorities are major downward factors in the income dimension.

It could also be found that the average PCAI in all spatial diversity categories is lower than the state average. The average PCAI is found to be the lowest in border and hill blocks.


HDI across the Districts of Assam

The HDI is a composite index derived on the basis of dimensional achievements in health, education and income. The HDIs are estimated for the districts19 based on the UNDP’s new method (2010). The index presents the status of human development in the districts. The values of HDI represent how much progress the people have made in overall human development given the pattern of dimensional achievements in the district and the normative goal of capability expansion. The values of the index range between 0 and 1 – where 0 implies no progress made and 1 signifies complete achievement with regard to the normative goals set for the purpose of assessment.

The present report estimates the value of HDI for the state as a whole at 0.557. This tells us that given the desired normative goal, the present level of progress in overall human development in the state is just a little beyond the halfway mark. The highest attainment is observed in Kamrup (M) and the lowest in Hailakandi. In 15 of 27 districts, the average level of achievement in human development is found to be more than the state average.

It could also be seen that, in general, educational achievement is the main driver of overall human development in the state and districts. However, in certain districts, namely, Dima Hasao, Kamrup, Barpeta, Chirang, Karbi Anglong, Goalpara and Marigaon, achievements in the health dimension have contributed substantially to overall human development. Contrary to this, barring the district of Kamrup(M), achievements in the income dimension have remained relatively lower limiting the improvement in overall human development. Further, the PCAI and values of HDI across the districts indicate a clear positive correlation. Therefore, improving the HDI requires ensuring income and livelihood of people across the state. Income and employment, thus, emerge as the most significant policy variable for enhancing overall human development in the state. This is, however, not to undermine the significance of the other two dimensions of human development in the state.

Assam’s Human Development - compared to the neighbouring region

The estimated value of HDI indicating the present status of human development in Assam is found to be 0.557. It may be mentioned that according to the global HDR (2014), the value of HDI for India is 0.586. Therefore, the present report puts Assam in the band of medium human development states. It may further be mentioned that the HDIs of neighbouring countries of Bhutan and Bangladesh are also in the same band.

The National HDR, 2011 provides the value of HDI for the state as 0.44421. This marks an improvement of 15 per cent point over the HDI value of 0.386 for the state given in the National HDR 200122. The comparative picture of the human development outcome in 2011 indicates that Assam’s achievement falls within the category of low HDI in the country. Besides, the Assam HDR 2003 estimated the HDI for Assam at 0.40723.


Human development in Assam remains about half way in relation to the desired level. The dimensional achievements differ district wise as well as important diversity wise, that is, spatial, demographic and sector wise. The differential achievements in human development observed in the districts, thus, need to be accounted for these diversities within the districts. Improving income and health emerges as the most critical policy concern. Gainful employment thus assumes the central place in the human development strategy in the state.

Inequalities in opportunity with regard to health, education and income have been pervasive and these result in considerable loss in potential development achievements in the state. The distinct divides in achievements, therefore, are to be bridged to improve overall human development in the state.

Notwithstanding this, the various processes of service delivery and governance have significant impact over levels of achievements and those need to be set right for better development outcomes. All these hint at major policy directions in terms of addressing multi-dimensional deprivation and inequality in the state.

SSC Sub-Inspector Delhi Police, CAPFs And ASI CISF Examination 2018 – 1000+ Posts

Staff Selection Commission will hold an open competitive Computer Based Examination for Recruitment of Sub-Inspectors in Delhi Police, Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and Assistant Sub Inspectors in CISF, the details of which are as under:

1. Sub-Inspector (GD) in CAPFs 
 (Central Armed Police Forces) (in BSF, CISF, CRPF, ITBP, SSB)
No of posts :  1073 posts  (Male-1035, Female-38) (BSF-508, ITBP-85, CRPF-274, SSB-206, CISF – Vacancies will be intimated later)
Pay : Level-6 Rs. 35400-112400/- of 7th CPC pay index
Age : 20-25 years

2. Sub-Inspector (Executive) (Male/Female) in Delhi Police
No of posts : 
150 posts (Male : 97 posts, Female : 53 posts)
Pay : Level-6 Rs. 35400-112400/- of 7th CPC pay index
Age : 20-25 years

3. Assistant Sub-Inspector (Executive) in CISF
No of posts : 
  posts will be intimated later
Pay : Level-5 Rs. 29200-92300/- of 7th CPC pay index
Age : 20-25 years

Age Relaxation: SC/ ST: 5 years, OBC: 3 years.

Educational Qualification: Educational Qualification for all posts is Bachelor‟s degree from a recognized university or equivalent.

Centers of Examination:
 Under Regional Director(NER), Staff Selection Commission, the name of examination centres are – Guwahati (Dispur) (5105), Itanagar (5001), Dibrugarh (5102), Jorhat (5107), Silchar (5111), Imphal (5501), Shillong (5401), Ukhrul (5503), Aizwal (5701), Kohima (5302), Agartala (5601), Churachandpur (5502), Tura (5402), Goalpara (5104), Tezpur (5112), Lakhimpur (5109) .

Scheme of examination: The examination will consist of Paper-I, Physical Standard Test (PST)/ Physical Endurance Test (PET), Paper-II and Detailed Medical Examination (DME). All these stages of the examination are mandatory.

Application Fee: Rs.100/- (Rupees One Hundred only). Fee can be paid through SBI Challan/ SBI Net Banking or by using Visa/ MasterCard/ Maestro Credit/ Debit cards. No fee for SC/ ST/ PH/ Ex-Servicemen and Women candidates.

How to Apply:
 Apply Online at SSC Recruitment website  from 03/03/2018 to 02/04/2018 only.

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Nagaland PSC Recruitment 2018 – Jr. Engg, Demonstrator & Inspectors – 66 Posts

NPSC Jr. Engineer & Soil Conservation Officer Posts 2018 Notification

Nagaland Public Service Commission after a long time has come up new advertisement to fill up 66 vacancies of Technical assistants, SDO, Junior Electrical Engineer, Asst. Conservator of forests, demonstrator posts in various departments. So, candidates those who are eligible may apply on or before 31st March 2018 in a prescribed format.

Post wise vacancy details are given below.

  • Agriculture Officer-03
  • Agriculture Inspector-06
  • Demonstrator-16
  • Asst. Conservator of Forest-02
  • SDO-04
  • Jr. Engineer-22
  • Junior Soil Conservation Officer-07
  • Technical Assistant-06

Eligibility Criteria

Educational Qualification
  • For Agriculture officer, inspector posts the qualification is B.Sc (agriculture).
  • For demonstrator post applicants must complete diploma/ SSC with ITI certificate in respective discipline.
  • For Asst. Conservator of forest post applicants must complete bachelor’s degree in natural science, mathematics, statistics, geology etc.
  • For SDO posts the qualification is BE/ B.Tech and Jr. Engineer post qualification is diploma/ degree (electrical/ electrical & electronics engineering).
  • For more information you may refer official notification.


Post wise vacancy details are given below.

  • Agriculture Officer, Junior Engineer, Junior Soil Conservator-Rs.9300-34800/-
  • Agriculture Inspector, Demonstrator-Rs.5200-20200/-
  • Asst. Conservator of Forest, SDO, Jr. Soil Conservation Officer-Rs.15600-39100/-

Application Process

Candidates applying for NPSC recruitment notification may apply from 13th March 2018 to 31st March 2018. To download application form directly applicants may.

Link to ApplyNPSC Application Form

Click Here: Click Here – Official Website Link

APSC Recruitment 2018 – Assistant Conservator Of Forests – 25 Posts

The Assam Public Service Commission invites Application from Indian citizens as defined in Articles 5-8 of the Constitution of India for filling up 25(twenty five) nos. posts of Assistant Conservator of Forests in the Assam Forest Service (Class-I) under Environment & Forests Deptt.
Name of post: Assistant Conservator of Forests (AFS- Class-I)
No of posts: 
Last Date: 12/04/2018.
Pay: Pay Band 4 (PB-4), Rs 30,000/- to 1,10,000/- and Grade Pay Rs. 12,700/-
Age: Candidate must not be less than 21 years or more than 38 years of age on the 1st January, 2018.The upper age limit is relaxable in the case of Scheduled caste/ Scheduled Tribes candidates upto 5 (five) years.

Educational Qualification: 
Applicant must possess Bachelor’s Degree (or equivalent) in Science or Engineering of any recognized University with at least one of the following subjects:-
i. Agriculture
ii. Botany
iii. Chemistry
iv. Computer Applications/ Computer Science
v. Engineering (Agriculture/ Chemical/ Civil/ Computer/ Electrical/ Electronics/
vi. Environmental Science
vii. Forestry
viii. Geology
ix. Horticulture
x. Mathematics
xi. Physics
xii. Statistics
xiii. Veterinary Science
xiv. Zoology

Application Fee: Treasury Receipt for Rs.250/- (Rs 150/- for SC/ ST/OBC/MOBC candidates) as Application fee showing the name of the post and deptt. and also full Head of Account “Non tax Revenue, OTHER NON TAX REVENUE 0051 PSC, 105 STATE PSC Application fee receipt of Assam Public Service Commission”. The application fees for BPL candidates as per Govt. Notification No. FEG.32/ 2016/8-A dated 28-10-2016 is nil.

How to apply: The name of the post applied for should be clearly written in “bold letters” in the Envelope containing the application form and it should be addressed to the Deputy Secretary, APSC, Jawaharnagar, Khanapara, Guwahati-22. Application form may be obtained by downloading the same from the APSC’s website“Application forms for other examination”).

The last date of submission of duly filled up application Forms accompanied by all particulars to the Commission’s office is fixed on 12-04-2018.

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APSC Recruitment 2018 – Forest Ranger – 50 Posts

The Assam Public Service Commission invites Application from Indian citizens as defined in Articles 5-8 of the Constitution of India for filling up 50 (fifty) nos. posts of Forest Rangers in the Assam Forest Service under Environment & Forests Deptt., Assam.
Post Name: Forest Ranger
No of Post : 50
Last Date: 04/04/2018 
Educational Qualification: Applicant must possess Bachelor’s Degree (or equivalent) in Science or Engineering of any recognized University with at least in one of the following subjects:-
i. Agriculture
ii. Botany
iii. Chemistry
iv. Computer Applications/ Computer Science
v. Engineering (Agriculture/ Chemical/ Civil/ Computer/ Electrical/ Electronics/
vi. Environmental Science
vii. Forestry
viii. Geology
ix. Horticulture
x. Mathematics
xi. Physics
xii. Statistics
xiii. Veterinary Science
xiv. Zoology
Pay :Pay Band 3 (PB-3), Rs 22000/- to 87000/- and Grade Pay Rs. 10300/-
Age: Candidate must not be less than 21 years or more than 43 years of age on the 1st January, 2018.The upper age limit will be relaxed in the case of Scheduled caste/ Scheduled Tribes candidates upto 5 (five) years as per rules.
Minimum standards for height and chest girth for a candidate shall be as under:-
                                Height (cm)  – Chest girth (cm) – Normal Expansion
Male candidate    163                  –                        84  –  05
Female candidate 150                 –                        79  –  05
The following minimum height standard will be allowed in case of candidates belonging to Scheduled Tribes and races who are residing in Assam such as Assamese, Bhutanese, Garowalis, Gorkhas, Kumaonis, Ladakhese, Mizo, Naga, Nepalese, Sikkimese and those from Arunachal Pradesh, Lahaul & Spiti, Meghalaya:
Male candidate – 152cm
Female candidate – 145cm
How to Apply:
  • i. Original Treasury Receipt for Rs.250/- (Rs 150/-for SC/ ST/ OBC/ MOBC candidates) as Application fee showing the name of the post and deptt. and also full Head of Account “ Non tax Revenue, OTHER NON TAX REVENUE 0051 PSC, 105 STATE PSC Application fee receipt of Assam Public Service Commission”.
  • ii. 2 (two) copies of recent passport size photograph duly signed by the candidate.
  • iii. Certificate of age issued by respective Boards in HSLC or equivalent examination (self attested copy).
  • iv. Certificates and Marksheets of all educational qualification from HSLC onwards (self attested copies).
  • v. Caste certificate for candidates belonging to SC/STP/STH/OBC/MOBC from the appropriate authorities (self attested copy).
  • vi. Experience certificate (where necessary) indicating the period of Service/ experience with date.

Last Date: 04/04/2018 

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