Month: March 2018

Elephant Census 2017 Highlight & State of Elephants in India

Elephant Census 2017

In the first-ever synchronised all-India Elephant Census 2017, the population of India’s national heritage animal, the elephant, is at 27, 312 across 23 states.

This means the population has decreased by about 3,000, compared to last census in 2012. In 2012, the population of Asian elephant, an endangered and protected species in India, was estimated at around 30,000 (29,391-30,711) and in 2007 it was estimated at about 27,670 (27,657-27,682).

While numbers are lower than in 2012, previous counts were not synchronised & may have had duplication. Experts say parallels cannot be drawn, because in the 2012 count, various states used different methodologies and the effort was not synchronised across the country; errors and duplication could have led to overestimation.

As per the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the population of Asian elephants was about 41,410 to 52,345 and of that India alone accounts for nearly 60%.

Director of the Project Elephant, R.K Shrivastav, said he is hopeful that the exercise will set new standards in population estimation of elephants in India and in other countries as well. “Quality of data collected during the elephant census will be high. It will be helpful in effective planning of various issues relating to elephant conservation in the country,”.

India started Project Elephant in 1992 to protect the Asian elephant, its habitat and corridors and address the man-elephant conflict. Since then, the government has been counting the elephant population every four to five years.

At present, there are 32 elephant reserves across India, covering over 58,000 sq. km. But loss and degradation of wildlife habitats, including the elephant corridors, are increasing the human-elephant conflict.


Geographical Distribution 

The highest population was in southern region (11,960) followed by the northeast region (10,139), east-central region (3,128) and northern region (2,085).

Country’s over 55 percent of elephant population is in Southern region and mainly in two states of Karnataka and Kerala.

Among the states, the highest population was recorded in Karnataka (6,049), followed by Assam (5,719) and Kerala (3,054).

In North-East Region, Assam has the maximum number of elephants, 5,719, followed by 1,754 in Meghalaya and 1,614 in Arunachal Pradesh. The population of elephants in north Bengal has been included in the Northeast population.

Overall elephant density of 0.23 elephants per square km in Assam. In Assam, elephants are found in 36 forest divisions. A total area of 11,601 square km was sampled for block count direct method for the state and the elephant density of 0.38 animals per square kilometre was estimated for this state.

In Meghalaya, much of the elephant habitat area is under community forest. A total of 232 blocks were sampled in the state and the overall density was 0.16 elephants per square kilometre.


Recent Initiatives

Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate change (MoEFCC), Dr Harsh Vardhan launched a nationwide campaign, “Gaj Yatra”, on the occasion of World Elephant Day on 12 August, to protect elephants, which will cover 12 elephant range states.

The environment minister also released a document—“Agreed points of action on trans-boundary conservation of elephants by India and Bangladesh”—which highlighted the issues on which the two nations have achieved consensus. The agreed points included constitution of a joint working group within 60 days to evolve and develop protocols and standard operating procedures for trans-boundary conservation and management of elephants.

It also called for facilitating trans-boundary migration along the India-Bangladesh border, establishment of response teams to guide such elephants which may stray into human settlements, ensure sharing of information, discouraging erection of electric fences for protection of agriculture and horticulture crops in the areas falling in identified migratory corridors to prevent death of elephants from electrocution and steps to protect, improve and expand natural habitats for elephants.

As per official numbers, in last four years, one human life was lost every day due to the human-elephant conflict. A total of 1,465 humans have been killed in the last four years (2013-14 to 2016-17).

Governments, both at the centre and in the states, have been making efforts to address the issue, but due to the huge pressure for development, natural habitats have suffered. They have even used methods like beehives and chilli fences to prevent the human-elephant conflict—to limited success.


World Elephant Day

World Elephant Day is a yearly worldwide occasion celebrated over the world on August 12, to focus the attention of various stakeholders in supporting various conservation policies to help protect elephants, including improving enforcement policies to prevent illegal poaching and trade in ivory, conserving elephant habitats, providing better treatment for captive elephants and reintroducing captive elephants into sanctuaries.

The objective of World Elephant Day is to make mindfulness about the predicament of elephants and to share learning and positive answers for the better care and administration of captive and wild elephants.

African elephantsare listed as “vulnerable” and Asian elephants as “endangered” in the IUCN Red List of threatened species.

Key Fact: As per the available population estimates, there are about 400,000 African elephants and 40,000 Asian elephants.



Rhinoceros Conservation – A success story

Assam Geography - Assamexam


Rhinoceros Conservation - A success story

From 75 in 1905, Indian rhinos numbered over 2,700 by 2012

From a population of barely 75 in 1905, Indian rhinos numbered over 2,700 by 2012, according to the World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India), a global wildlife advocacy.

The Indian rhino was moved from its status of endangered (since 1986) to vulnerable in 2008 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This was after a survey in 2007 by the IUCN Asian Rhino Specialist Group, which estimated that there were close to 2,575 one-horned rhinos in the wild, spread across parts of India and Nepal, with India being home to 2,200 rhinos, or over 85 per cent of the population.

Known by the scientific name of Rhinoceros unicornis, these animals are mega-herbivores, part of a small and disappearing group that weigh over 1,000 kilograms and include the elephant and the hippopotamus. These large herbivores are shapers of their landscape and environment, and the rhino may well be a keystone species – known to have a disproportionately large impact on its environment relative to its population – according to research conducted in South Africa’s Kruger National Park in 2014. By eating only certain kinds of grass – and trampling upon dense vegetation – rhinos indirectly affect smaller herbivores in their area, creating a cascade of effects that, in turn, affects other species as well. The Indian rhinoceros is also known to help in seed dispersion, moving large tree seeds from forested areas to grasslands through excreta.

The habitat of the Indian rhino once extended from Pakistan into northern India and modern-day Myanmar, reaching into Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. However, loss of large tracts of habitat and extensive poaching for its horn – believed to have medicinal and aphrodisiacal properties – led to its extinction in all these countries, except in India and Nepal. By the 1900s, only between 100 and 200 rhinos survived in the wild. From there to its current population of approximately 3,500 the world over is a remarkable turnaround, the International Rhino Foundation says.

In India, rhinos can now be found in parts of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Assam. In 2012, more than 91 per cent of Indian rhinos lived in Assam, according to WWF-India data. Within Assam, rhinos are concentrated within Kaziranga national park, with a few in Pobitara wildlife sanctuary.

Kaziranga NP is home to more than 91 per cent of Assam’s rhinos – and more than 80 per cent of India’s count — with a 2015 population census by Kaziranga park authorities revealing 2,401 rhinos within the park.


Poaching - Illegal Trading of Rhino parts

A rhino horn could fetch as much as $60,000 per pound in the contraband market in 2015, largely in countries such as China and Vietnam, according to a report in The Washington Times.

Although rhino poaching peaked in India in 2013, when 41 of the herbivores were killed, it has declined since, largely because of better policing and protection by the Assam government and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), according to Tito Joseph, programme manager of the anti-poaching programme at the Wildlife Protection Society of India, an NGO.

But outside the park, transport of poached horns is not adequately tracked, said Joseph, a key factor being regional insurgency. During the 1980s and 1990s, poachers exploited the destruction of park infrastructure during conflicts and killed almost the entire population of rhinos in many of Assam’s protected areas, such as Manas, Laokhowa and Burachapori.

Rhinos are solitary creatures. Each consumes almost 40 kg of vegetation a day. However, within parks of Assam with a large rhino population, animals have been seen in groups which is an indication of lack of space. These observations are coupled with increasing fights for dominance among rhinos, a competition for available space.

In 2015, Kaziranga N P had 2,401 rhinos. While Pabitoram, in 2012, with an area of 38.8 sq km, had 100 rhinos.

According to some estimates, based on observation, the threshold population of Kaziranga is estimated at 2,500, while Pabitora’s threshold is 100. Exceeding carrying capacity also means that the rhinos are more likely to venture out of protected areas, which increases chances of human-animal conflict.


Indian Rhino Vision 2020 programme (IRV2020) - Create new habitats

So, rhinos need to move to ecologically similar but distant areas to ensure species survival, according to the Indian Rhino Vision 2020 programme (IRV2020), a collaborative effort between various organisations, including the International Rhino Foundation, Assam’s Forest Department, Bodoland Territorial Council, WWF-India, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

The first successful attempt to move rhinos out of Assam and re-introduce them into a similar habitat was made in 1984 in Uttar Pradesh’s Dudhwa national park, which has 33 rhinos now.

IRV2020 hopes to raise the number of rhinos in Assam to 3,000 by 2020 and spread them over seven of the state’s protected areas: Kaziranga, Pobitora, Orang national park, Manas national park, Laokhowa wildlife sanctuary, Burachapori wildlife sanctuary and Dibru Saikhowa wildlife sanctuary.



APSC Recruitment 2018 – Senior Information & Public Relation Officer (6 Posts)

Assam Public Service Commission invites application for the under-mentioned posts under Assam Government in the scale of pay as indicated below and carrying usual allowances as admissible under Rules of the Govt. of Assam,
Name of post: Senior Information & Public Relation Officer under Information and Public Relation Department, Assam.
No of posts:
 6 (Six)

Pay: Rs. 30,000/- to 1,10,000/- (Grade Pay of Rs. 13,900/-)
Age: Candidates must not be less than 21(twenty one) years and more than 38 ( Thirty eight) years of age on 01/01/2018. The upper age limit is relaxable in case of SC/ ST candidates upto 5 (five) years.

Educational Qualification:
(i) A graduate in Science/Arts/Commerce from a recognized University only will be acceptable.
(ii) A degree/diploma in Journalism or in Mass Communication from an Institute recognized by University Grants Commission (UGC) or at least five years experience in Journalism in a responsible capacity public relations organizations/Government Public Relations Department.
(iii) A good command over English.
(iv) Knowledge of Assamese or any other regional language or local language of the state.
(v) Knowledge of Computer Application.

Application Fee :
 As per Govt. Notification No. FEG.32/2016/8-A dated Dispur the 28th October, 2016 the Application Fees for all post under the State Govt. of Assam shown as below:

1. For General Candidate : Rs.250/- (Rupees two hundred and fifty) only.
2. For SC/ST/OBC/MOBC : Rs.150/- (Rupees one hundred and fifty) only.
3. Candidates having BPL Certificate : Nil (Candidate having BPL certificate should produce their photocopy of certificate along with the Application Form).

Fees should be deposited only through Treasury Challan in the Head of Account “NON TAX REVENUE, OTHER NON TAX REVENUE 0051 PSC, 105 STATE PSC APPLICATION FEE RECEIPT OF APSC” showing name of post and department. Original copy of Treasury Challan should be submitted along with the application form.

How to apply: The name of the post applied for should be clearly written in “bold letters” in the Envelope containing the application form and it should be addressed to the Deputy Secretary, APSC, Jawaharnagar, Khanapara, Guwahati-22.

Application form may be obtained by downloading the same from the APSC’s (Application form DR). The last date of receiving duly filled up application form in the Commission’s office is fixed on 17/04/2018 during office hours.
Last Date: 17/04/2018.

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Human Development Report of Assam

Assam Economy - Assamexam

Human Development Report of Assam


Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher. The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq for the UNDP.

HDI has three components denoting three basic capabilities related to health, education and living standard. The realised levels of achievement in the three components are measured by a set of indicators. Over the last two decades, these indicators have undergone several changes to reflect the responsive and evolving nature of the approach. For instance, in the education dimension, indicators of literacy rate and combined gross enrollment ratio have been replaced, in 2010, by mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling. These changes became imperative as countries progressed along literacy and enrollment over the last two decades, reducing the distinguishing power of these previous indicators.

Published on 4 November 2010 (and updated on 10 June 2011), the 2010 Human Development Index (HDI) combines three dimensions:

  • A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth
  • Education index: Mean years of schooling (MYS) and Expected years of schooling (EYS)
  • A decent standard of living: Per capita Income

In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI. The following three indices are used:

  1. Life Expectancy Index (LEI) – LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.
  2. Education Index(EI)
    1. Mean Years of Schooling Index (MYSI)-Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025.
    2. Expected Years of Schooling Index (EYSI) – Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master’s degree in most countries.
  3. Income Index (II) – II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100.

Finally, the HDI is the Geometric Mean of the previous three normalized indices.

Human Development Indicators and Indices in Assam


Life Expectancy at Birth

The indicator of life expectancy at birth is used to measure the realised achievement in the health dimension, that is, ‘to be able to live a long life’. The life expectancy at birth denotes the number of years that a child can expect to live at the time of birth, given the age-specific mortality rates in the population. The life expectancy, however, is an indicator of very long-term improvement in health.

In India, data on life expectancy at birth are available through Sample Registration System (SRS) only up to the state level usually disaggregated at the levels of male-female and rural-urban. The latest available SRS data (2006-10) estimate life expectancy at birth in Assam at 62 years (male 61 years and female 63.2 years) putting the state in the bottom echelon.

This low achievement of the state in health functioning is consequent on high infant and child mortality together with high adult mortality in the state since life expectancy at birth depends on an age-specific mortality pattern. Low probability in child survival adversely affects the life expectancy at birth in the state.

Based on HDR survey data, the life expectancy at birth in the state is found to be 54 years. District level estimates of life expectancy at birth reveal that life expectancy varies widely across districts. The highest life expectancy is estimated in Kamrup (71.88) while the lowest is found in Cachar (40.76).  Relatively higher life expectancies are found to be in the districts of Barpeta, Chirang, Dima Hasao, Karbi Anglong, Goalpara and Marigaon. Similarly, relatively lower life expectancies are found in districts of Baksa, Karimganj, Hailakandi, tinsukia and Sonitpur

The life expectancy in rural areas is found to be lower (53.39) than in urban areas (57.97). Religion wise, it is found that Christians have higher life expectancy (58.37) compared to Hindus (54.62) and Muslims (52.98). Moreover, the life expectancy among Other Backward Classes (OBCs) is found to be much lower (51.75) than the state average (54.0). Across spatial diversity categories, life expectancy was found to be the highest in the hill blocks (67.42). On the other hand, border, flood-affected and tea garden blocks have been found to be disadvantaged in terms of life expectancies.


Mean Years of Schooling

Mean Years of Schooling (MYS) is one of the two indicators used to measure educational achievement in HDRs by UNDP. It replaced the literacy rate as an indicator under the education dimension in 2010. MYS indicates the average number of completed years of education of a country’s population. Usually, MYS is estimated for populations aged 25 years and older, which is also the indicator used in the calculation of the HDI by UNDP.

MYS is derived from data on educational attainment. For obtaining estimates of MYS, distribution of population by age and educational attainment is required at a given point of time. The officially required number of years for each level of education is then applied as a multiplier to the age-education frequency distribution to get the mean years from the distribution.

Based on the HDR survey data, the MYS for Assam is estimated at 6.1710. Given the normative goal of 15 years which ensures secondary level of schooling11, the present educational achievement in the state is only about 40 per cent of the goal12. Besides, there is a clear rural-urban divide with MYS in rural areas at 5.70 and that in urban areas at 8.59.

The second visible divide is observed in male- female achievement levels: the MYS of males is estimated at 6.93 against the MYS of females at 5.32. Differences in MYS are also prominent along religious and social categories. The MYS amongst Hindus is found to be 6.85 compared to 4.49 amongst Muslims.

Similarly, MYS is found to be lower (5.92) amongst SCs compared to other social categories. In terms of MYS, the most disadvantaged section is found to be rural Muslim women – their MYS is estimated as a mere 3.3. However, the estimated MYS for rural Muslim women varies widely across districts, the lowest being observed in Darrang (1.55 only) and the highest is found in Sibsagar (7.98).

District wise estimates show that MYS ranges from 3.77 to 9.16. The highest MYS of 9.16 is found in Kamrup (M) while the lowest 3.77 is found in Darrang. In terms of MYS in rural areas, Darrang again figures at the bottom with 3.59 followed by Dhubri with 4.09. The highest MYS in rural areas is observed in Sibsagar (8.26) followed by Jorhat (7.20) and Nalbari (7.07). As far as the MYS among females is concerned, the lowest is found again in Darrang (2.87) followed by Baksa (3.51) and Dhubri (3.50). The highest MYS in females is obtained in Kamrup Metro (8.35) followed by Sibsagar (7.79) and Jorhat (7.22). This notwithstanding, the highest gender gaps in MYS are also observed in Sibsagar, Kamrup (M) and Jorhat.

Expected Years of Schooling

The second indicator of educational achievement in HDI is Expected Years of Schooling (EYS) which replaced the gross enrolment ratio in 2010. Nevertheless, EYS is built upon enrolment rates. EYS is a measure of the number of years of schooling a child at the start of his or her education is expected to receive, if current rates of enrolment are maintained throughout the child’s life13. The advantages of using this indicator are that it represents a measure which takes into account both stock and flow dimensions of the school system and it does not require standardisation in comparing countries or societies with distinct age structures. The indicator is intended to represent knowledge accumulation under the formal school system where higher value of EYS is believed to denote higher accumulated knowledge.

For Assam, the estimated EYS is found to be 11.85 years15. This indicates that, on an average, given the present enrolment pattern in the state, a child is expected to complete at least the secondary level when he or she starts going to school. There are, however, many divides. The EYS in rural areas is found to be 11.80 which is less than the EYS of 12.20 estimated in urban areas. The EYS for males is found to be 11.72 against that of females which is 11.99. Similar divides are also noticed across religious and social categories.

District level estimates reveal that EYS in the state varies in the range 10.98 to 12.57. The lowest if found in Hailakandi (10.98) and the highest is found in Chirang (12.57). Similarly, tea garden areas and areas with multiple diversities have relatively low EYS compared to other spatial diversity categories.


Per Capita Income 

Income per capita is considered as an ‘indirect’ indicator of human development. The first HDR of UNDP (1990) observes that an indicator of ‘command over resources needed for a decent living’ requires data on access to land, credit, income and other sources. However, there is a dearth of reliable data covering all these aspects. Since data on GDP per capita are widely available, this indicator is taken to represent the income dimension of human development. In 2010, instead of GDP per capita, Gross National Income (GNI) per capita is taken as the indicator. For allowing cross-country comparison, the GNI per capita of the countries was adjusted by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) ratios.

However, income has the peculiar property of having diminishing contribution to human development as income rises. Therefore, income needs ‘treatment’ to reflect such a feature and, over the last two decades, various treatments have been applied in HDRs16. The 2010 method uses logarithmic transformation over income values to reflect this property. As income rises, a marginal change in logarithmic transformation of income declines giving lower weights to higher income.

In a state HDR, ideal replacement for GNI per capita is taken to be the Net District Domestic Product (NDDP) measured in constant prices. However, since NDDPs are district aggregates, the underlying distribution is not known. To make the indicator consistent with inequality measures, instead of NDDP the average per capita annual income estimates of the districts obtained from the HDR survey are used in the report. This also allows other disaggregation. It has been found that the estimated Per Capita Annual Income (PCAI) from the household level data fairly match the latest (2012-13) data on NDDP (2004-05 prices) for the districts. There are obvious gaps in PCAI in rural and urban sectors. The average PCAI in rural areas is only about 40 per cent of that of the urban areas (INR 22,087 in rural against INR 56,157 in urban areas). It could further be found that the average PCAI of Christians (INR 16,068) is the lowest followed by Muslims (INR 18,228). The average PCAI of Hindus is found as INR 28,092. A similar income gap prevails amongst different social categories as well. The average PCAI of STs is the lowest (INR. 21,445) compared to that of other social categories.

District wise, the highest PCAI was found in Kamrup (Metro) (INR 63,444) followed by Jorhat (INR 38,664). The lowest PCAI was obtained in Hailakandi (INR 16,632) followed by Dhubri (INR 16,336). In general, it is found that low PCAIs in border areas, areas with multiple spatial diversities and amongst religious minorities are major downward factors in the income dimension.

It could also be found that the average PCAI in all spatial diversity categories is lower than the state average. The average PCAI is found to be the lowest in border and hill blocks.


HDI across the Districts of Assam

The HDI is a composite index derived on the basis of dimensional achievements in health, education and income. The HDIs are estimated for the districts19 based on the UNDP’s new method (2010). The index presents the status of human development in the districts. The values of HDI represent how much progress the people have made in overall human development given the pattern of dimensional achievements in the district and the normative goal of capability expansion. The values of the index range between 0 and 1 – where 0 implies no progress made and 1 signifies complete achievement with regard to the normative goals set for the purpose of assessment.

The present report estimates the value of HDI for the state as a whole at 0.557. This tells us that given the desired normative goal, the present level of progress in overall human development in the state is just a little beyond the halfway mark. The highest attainment is observed in Kamrup (M) and the lowest in Hailakandi. In 15 of 27 districts, the average level of achievement in human development is found to be more than the state average.

It could also be seen that, in general, educational achievement is the main driver of overall human development in the state and districts. However, in certain districts, namely, Dima Hasao, Kamrup, Barpeta, Chirang, Karbi Anglong, Goalpara and Marigaon, achievements in the health dimension have contributed substantially to overall human development. Contrary to this, barring the district of Kamrup(M), achievements in the income dimension have remained relatively lower limiting the improvement in overall human development. Further, the PCAI and values of HDI across the districts indicate a clear positive correlation. Therefore, improving the HDI requires ensuring income and livelihood of people across the state. Income and employment, thus, emerge as the most significant policy variable for enhancing overall human development in the state. This is, however, not to undermine the significance of the other two dimensions of human development in the state.

Assam’s Human Development - compared to the neighbouring region

The estimated value of HDI indicating the present status of human development in Assam is found to be 0.557. It may be mentioned that according to the global HDR (2014), the value of HDI for India is 0.586. Therefore, the present report puts Assam in the band of medium human development states. It may further be mentioned that the HDIs of neighbouring countries of Bhutan and Bangladesh are also in the same band.

The National HDR, 2011 provides the value of HDI for the state as 0.44421. This marks an improvement of 15 per cent point over the HDI value of 0.386 for the state given in the National HDR 200122. The comparative picture of the human development outcome in 2011 indicates that Assam’s achievement falls within the category of low HDI in the country. Besides, the Assam HDR 2003 estimated the HDI for Assam at 0.40723.


Human development in Assam remains about half way in relation to the desired level. The dimensional achievements differ district wise as well as important diversity wise, that is, spatial, demographic and sector wise. The differential achievements in human development observed in the districts, thus, need to be accounted for these diversities within the districts. Improving income and health emerges as the most critical policy concern. Gainful employment thus assumes the central place in the human development strategy in the state.

Inequalities in opportunity with regard to health, education and income have been pervasive and these result in considerable loss in potential development achievements in the state. The distinct divides in achievements, therefore, are to be bridged to improve overall human development in the state.

Notwithstanding this, the various processes of service delivery and governance have significant impact over levels of achievements and those need to be set right for better development outcomes. All these hint at major policy directions in terms of addressing multi-dimensional deprivation and inequality in the state.

SSC Sub-Inspector Delhi Police, CAPFs And ASI CISF Examination 2018 – 1000+ Posts

Staff Selection Commission will hold an open competitive Computer Based Examination for Recruitment of Sub-Inspectors in Delhi Police, Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) and Assistant Sub Inspectors in CISF, the details of which are as under:

1. Sub-Inspector (GD) in CAPFs 
 (Central Armed Police Forces) (in BSF, CISF, CRPF, ITBP, SSB)
No of posts :  1073 posts  (Male-1035, Female-38) (BSF-508, ITBP-85, CRPF-274, SSB-206, CISF – Vacancies will be intimated later)
Pay : Level-6 Rs. 35400-112400/- of 7th CPC pay index
Age : 20-25 years

2. Sub-Inspector (Executive) (Male/Female) in Delhi Police
No of posts : 
150 posts (Male : 97 posts, Female : 53 posts)
Pay : Level-6 Rs. 35400-112400/- of 7th CPC pay index
Age : 20-25 years

3. Assistant Sub-Inspector (Executive) in CISF
No of posts : 
  posts will be intimated later
Pay : Level-5 Rs. 29200-92300/- of 7th CPC pay index
Age : 20-25 years

Age Relaxation: SC/ ST: 5 years, OBC: 3 years.

Educational Qualification: Educational Qualification for all posts is Bachelor‟s degree from a recognized university or equivalent.

Centers of Examination:
 Under Regional Director(NER), Staff Selection Commission, the name of examination centres are – Guwahati (Dispur) (5105), Itanagar (5001), Dibrugarh (5102), Jorhat (5107), Silchar (5111), Imphal (5501), Shillong (5401), Ukhrul (5503), Aizwal (5701), Kohima (5302), Agartala (5601), Churachandpur (5502), Tura (5402), Goalpara (5104), Tezpur (5112), Lakhimpur (5109) .

Scheme of examination: The examination will consist of Paper-I, Physical Standard Test (PST)/ Physical Endurance Test (PET), Paper-II and Detailed Medical Examination (DME). All these stages of the examination are mandatory.

Application Fee: Rs.100/- (Rupees One Hundred only). Fee can be paid through SBI Challan/ SBI Net Banking or by using Visa/ MasterCard/ Maestro Credit/ Debit cards. No fee for SC/ ST/ PH/ Ex-Servicemen and Women candidates.

How to Apply:
 Apply Online at SSC Recruitment website  from 03/03/2018 to 02/04/2018 only.

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Nagaland PSC Recruitment 2018 – Jr. Engg, Demonstrator & Inspectors – 66 Posts

NPSC Jr. Engineer & Soil Conservation Officer Posts 2018 Notification

Nagaland Public Service Commission after a long time has come up new advertisement to fill up 66 vacancies of Technical assistants, SDO, Junior Electrical Engineer, Asst. Conservator of forests, demonstrator posts in various departments. So, candidates those who are eligible may apply on or before 31st March 2018 in a prescribed format.

Post wise vacancy details are given below.

  • Agriculture Officer-03
  • Agriculture Inspector-06
  • Demonstrator-16
  • Asst. Conservator of Forest-02
  • SDO-04
  • Jr. Engineer-22
  • Junior Soil Conservation Officer-07
  • Technical Assistant-06

Eligibility Criteria

Educational Qualification
  • For Agriculture officer, inspector posts the qualification is B.Sc (agriculture).
  • For demonstrator post applicants must complete diploma/ SSC with ITI certificate in respective discipline.
  • For Asst. Conservator of forest post applicants must complete bachelor’s degree in natural science, mathematics, statistics, geology etc.
  • For SDO posts the qualification is BE/ B.Tech and Jr. Engineer post qualification is diploma/ degree (electrical/ electrical & electronics engineering).
  • For more information you may refer official notification.


Post wise vacancy details are given below.

  • Agriculture Officer, Junior Engineer, Junior Soil Conservator-Rs.9300-34800/-
  • Agriculture Inspector, Demonstrator-Rs.5200-20200/-
  • Asst. Conservator of Forest, SDO, Jr. Soil Conservation Officer-Rs.15600-39100/-

Application Process

Candidates applying for NPSC recruitment notification may apply from 13th March 2018 to 31st March 2018. To download application form directly applicants may.

Link to ApplyNPSC Application Form

Click Here: Click Here – Official Website Link

APSC Recruitment 2018 – Assistant Conservator Of Forests – 25 Posts

The Assam Public Service Commission invites Application from Indian citizens as defined in Articles 5-8 of the Constitution of India for filling up 25(twenty five) nos. posts of Assistant Conservator of Forests in the Assam Forest Service (Class-I) under Environment & Forests Deptt.
Name of post: Assistant Conservator of Forests (AFS- Class-I)
No of posts: 
Last Date: 12/04/2018.
Pay: Pay Band 4 (PB-4), Rs 30,000/- to 1,10,000/- and Grade Pay Rs. 12,700/-
Age: Candidate must not be less than 21 years or more than 38 years of age on the 1st January, 2018.The upper age limit is relaxable in the case of Scheduled caste/ Scheduled Tribes candidates upto 5 (five) years.

Educational Qualification: 
Applicant must possess Bachelor’s Degree (or equivalent) in Science or Engineering of any recognized University with at least one of the following subjects:-
i. Agriculture
ii. Botany
iii. Chemistry
iv. Computer Applications/ Computer Science
v. Engineering (Agriculture/ Chemical/ Civil/ Computer/ Electrical/ Electronics/
vi. Environmental Science
vii. Forestry
viii. Geology
ix. Horticulture
x. Mathematics
xi. Physics
xii. Statistics
xiii. Veterinary Science
xiv. Zoology

Application Fee: Treasury Receipt for Rs.250/- (Rs 150/- for SC/ ST/OBC/MOBC candidates) as Application fee showing the name of the post and deptt. and also full Head of Account “Non tax Revenue, OTHER NON TAX REVENUE 0051 PSC, 105 STATE PSC Application fee receipt of Assam Public Service Commission”. The application fees for BPL candidates as per Govt. Notification No. FEG.32/ 2016/8-A dated 28-10-2016 is nil.

How to apply: The name of the post applied for should be clearly written in “bold letters” in the Envelope containing the application form and it should be addressed to the Deputy Secretary, APSC, Jawaharnagar, Khanapara, Guwahati-22. Application form may be obtained by downloading the same from the APSC’s website“Application forms for other examination”).

The last date of submission of duly filled up application Forms accompanied by all particulars to the Commission’s office is fixed on 12-04-2018.

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APSC Recruitment 2018 – Forest Ranger – 50 Posts

The Assam Public Service Commission invites Application from Indian citizens as defined in Articles 5-8 of the Constitution of India for filling up 50 (fifty) nos. posts of Forest Rangers in the Assam Forest Service under Environment & Forests Deptt., Assam.
Post Name: Forest Ranger
No of Post : 50
Last Date: 04/04/2018 
Educational Qualification: Applicant must possess Bachelor’s Degree (or equivalent) in Science or Engineering of any recognized University with at least in one of the following subjects:-
i. Agriculture
ii. Botany
iii. Chemistry
iv. Computer Applications/ Computer Science
v. Engineering (Agriculture/ Chemical/ Civil/ Computer/ Electrical/ Electronics/
vi. Environmental Science
vii. Forestry
viii. Geology
ix. Horticulture
x. Mathematics
xi. Physics
xii. Statistics
xiii. Veterinary Science
xiv. Zoology
Pay :Pay Band 3 (PB-3), Rs 22000/- to 87000/- and Grade Pay Rs. 10300/-
Age: Candidate must not be less than 21 years or more than 43 years of age on the 1st January, 2018.The upper age limit will be relaxed in the case of Scheduled caste/ Scheduled Tribes candidates upto 5 (five) years as per rules.
Minimum standards for height and chest girth for a candidate shall be as under:-
                                Height (cm)  – Chest girth (cm) – Normal Expansion
Male candidate    163                  –                        84  –  05
Female candidate 150                 –                        79  –  05
The following minimum height standard will be allowed in case of candidates belonging to Scheduled Tribes and races who are residing in Assam such as Assamese, Bhutanese, Garowalis, Gorkhas, Kumaonis, Ladakhese, Mizo, Naga, Nepalese, Sikkimese and those from Arunachal Pradesh, Lahaul & Spiti, Meghalaya:
Male candidate – 152cm
Female candidate – 145cm
How to Apply:
  • i. Original Treasury Receipt for Rs.250/- (Rs 150/-for SC/ ST/ OBC/ MOBC candidates) as Application fee showing the name of the post and deptt. and also full Head of Account “ Non tax Revenue, OTHER NON TAX REVENUE 0051 PSC, 105 STATE PSC Application fee receipt of Assam Public Service Commission”.
  • ii. 2 (two) copies of recent passport size photograph duly signed by the candidate.
  • iii. Certificate of age issued by respective Boards in HSLC or equivalent examination (self attested copy).
  • iv. Certificates and Marksheets of all educational qualification from HSLC onwards (self attested copies).
  • v. Caste certificate for candidates belonging to SC/STP/STH/OBC/MOBC from the appropriate authorities (self attested copy).
  • vi. Experience certificate (where necessary) indicating the period of Service/ experience with date.

Last Date: 04/04/2018 

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Assam Budget 2018-19 – Highlights and Analysis

Assam Budget 2018-19 - Assam exam


Download Assam Budget 2018-19 Highlights & Analysis – PDF

Assam Finance Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma on March 12, 2018 presented Assam Budget 2018-19, the state’s first e-Budget at the legislative Assembly. The state Budget presented in the electronic format and each legislator will be provided with a tablet (computer) with details of the Budget during discussions and cut motion on the Budget inside the House.  This unique digital budget will also be the first one in the country to be drafted with citizens’ participation and streamed on social media and is made available on Google app. The proceedings of the Assam budget presentation will also go live on Twitter and Facebook.


Rs 90,673.42 crore under the Consolidated Fund, of which Rs 74,118.50 crore is on Revenue Account and the remaining Rs 16,554.92 crore is under Capital Account. Contingency Fund of 100.00 crore and Public Account of 290914.84crore. Total receipt of 381688.26 crore.


Consolidated Fund 90269.92 crore , Contingency Fund of 100.00 crore and Public Account of 290318.35 crore. Total Expenditure estimated at 380688.27 crore.

Surplus (for this year)

Receipts – Expenditure = 381688.26 crore – 380688.27 crore = Rs 999.99 crore.


Main Spending Areas
  • Education Department Budget – 11573 Crore
  • Guwahati Development Department – 1515 Crore
  • Health and Family Welfare Department– 5082 Crore
  • Agriculture Department– 1801.14 Crore
  • Fisheries Department – 160 Crore
  • Handloom, Textile and Sericulture Department – 5082 Crore
  • Industries and Commerce Department– 839 Crore
  • Irrigation Department– 1700 Crore
  • Panchayat and Rural Development – 5808 Crore
  • Border Areas Department – Rs 161 Crore
  • Co Operation Department – Rs 156.99 Crore
  • Cultural Affairs Department – Rs 155.83 Crore
  • Environment and Forest Department – Rs 505 Crore
  • Food and Civil Supplies Department – Rs 877 Crore
  • General Administration Department – Rs 727 Crore
  • Hill Areas Department – Rs 161.39 crore
  • Home and Political Department – Rs 5584 crore
  • Judicial Department – Rs 582 Crore
  • Legislative Department – Rs 45 Crore
  • Public Health Engineering Department – Rs 2661 Crore
  • Revenue and Disaster Management Department – Rs 1565 Crore
  • Social Welfare Department – Rs 2098 Crore
  • Sports and Youth Welfare Department – Rs 163 Crore
  • Tourism Department – Rs 81 Crore

Assam Budget 2018-19 Rupee share - Assam exam

Industry-wise analysis of Assam Budget 2018-19

Tea Industry
  • Cess on green tea leaves completely exempted. In the previous two budgets, the cess had been reduced from 25 paise to 10 paise per kg green tea leaf in two phases.
  • Rs 7 crore earmarked for digitizing mode of payment in Tea Gardens. Each Sardar, around 20,000 in total, to be provided with a smartphone of around Rs 3000-5000.
  • Rs 99 Crore for payment of outstanding PF dues, gratuity, arrear wages, salary, bonus, etc. of a retired worker & staff of Assam Tea Corporation
  • Token provision of Rs 20 crore to construct paver block roads along labour lines in all Tea Gardens in Assam
  • Rs 120 crore earmarked for Phase 2 of Chah Bagicha Dhan Puraskar aru Jeevan Suraksha Yojana. Rs 2500 has already been transferred to tea garden employees across 752 Tea Gardens during Chah Bagicha Dhan Purashkar Mela, launched in January 2018.
Agriculture Sector & Food
  • Exemption limits under the Agriculture Income Tax Act raised up to 2.5 lakh from the exemption limit of Rs 1 lakh and the other tax slabs have already been rationalized.
  • Rs 50 crore earmarked for Price Stabilization Fund which will provide cushion for consumers from price fluctuations in essential commodities
  • To activate inactive Kisan Credit Card accounts, a one-time cash incentive of Rs 3000 per inactive KCC holding farmer, if he renews the card.
  • For the agriculture sector, zero interest on crop loans, debt relief for farmers and financial assistance for farm implements.
  • Govt to set Media Fellowship for pursuing higher studies in journalism so that 20 journalists can be selected for this fellowship at rate of Rs 50,000 each. One-time grant of Rs 10 lakh.
  • 100 meritorious girl students studying in Polytechnics and Engineering colleges will be given a scholarship of Rs. 30,000 per year.
  • New Colleges at Baksa, Udalguri and Chirang Women Colleges at Mangaldoi, Hailakandi and Karimganj.
  • Polytechnic Colleges at Majuli, Tingkhong and Hajo
  • 10 New B.Ed Colleges to be established (Karbi Anglong, Bongaigaon, Baksa, Nalbari, Kamrup, Morigaon, Dima-Hasao, Sivasagar, Biswanath, Lakhimpur)
  • 9 New Women’s Law Colleges in Assam (Sonari, Senga, Batadrawa, Jaleswar, Golokganj, Bilasipara, Mangaldoi, Hailakandi and Karimganj ).
  • Rs 980 crore for Schools
  • Rs 256 crore under the ‘Tejasvi Nav-adhitam-astu Edu-Infra Funds (TNEIF)’ for infrastructure development of leading colleges.
  • Rs 250 crore allotted to scholarship scheme for girl students Rs 2000, Rs 4000, Rs 6000 and Rs 10,000 for girl students between class 10 to Post Graduation.
  • Rs 250 crore allotted for the Kanaklata Mahila Sabalikaran Yojana.
  • Scooties for 5000 girls securing the top 5000 position in HS Exam Results, 2018. Earlier the scheme had covered 1000 girls.
  • Reservation of two seats in our medical colleges for students from other North-Eastern states that do not have a State medical college.
  • Higher Education Department has also identified two clusters of leading colleges to be upgraded and developed into two New cluster universities one each in Jorhat and Guwahati. Jorhat cluster University will consist of JB college, Bahona College, DCB Girls college & CKB Commerce College and Guwahati cluster University will consist of Arya Vidyapeeth College, B Barooah College, Handique Girls College, Gauhati Commerce College & Pragjyotish College.
  • Legislation to be proposed for Regulation of Private Educational Institutions and Appropriate payment structure to be worked out for Teachers and allied functionaries in such institutions.
  • Rs 25 crore earmarked for Pratyahban scheme to be launched for selected Private Schools on the lines on Gunotsav.
Skill Development & Employment Generation
  • 13,000 urban youths to be trained under Deendayal Antyodoya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM)
  • Rs 5 crore for providing Self Employment grants to Educated Youths under Atal Atma Sansthapon Yojana
  • Rs 10 crore allocated for Atal Tinkering Lab (ATL) set up by the NITI Aayog, at the Secondary School Level. The Laboratories are dedicated work spaces where young minds are exposed to the latest technological advancements. ATLs to be set up in 50 government schools on a pilot basis.
  • Govt will invest Rs 14,800 per individual under skills training program
  • Rs 300 crore allotted for Swami Vivekananda Assam Youth Empowerment Yojana (SVAYEM) which envisages to provide financial assistance to young entrepreneurs.
  • Surrendered Cadres of insurgent outfits to be provided loans up to Rs 2 Lakhs and skill training under the SVAYEM Scheme.
  • Rs 77 crore has been allotted for State Level Mega Skill Development Scheme wherein Rs 14, 800 will be invested per individual. The state has set a target of empowering 1.5 lakh youth over a period of 3 years through this scheme.
  • Kanaklata Mahila Sabalikaran Yojana – A scheme to promote at least one lakh self-sustainable, self-help groups (SHGs) in the State through loan and capital subsidy will be launched in the upcoming financial year.
  • Treasury Challan system for third and fourth grade jobs has been terminated. Upper Age Limit extended from 38 to 44 for third and fourth grade employees, this however won’t be applicable in Police, Home Guards, Defence and Fire Dept.
  • Rs 10 crore allocated for readying Engineering and Commerce graduates for employment. ERP majors like SAP to establish 10 Centres of Excellence with intake capacity of about 5000 Engineering and Commerce graduates over a period of 3 years.
Health Sector
  • Rs 16 crore allocated under Sanjeevani- Village Health Outreach Program in 7680 villages of Assam
  • Salary allowances of Anganwadi workers and ASHA workers to be increase by Rs 1000 and of Anganwadi Helpers by Rs 500
  • Rs 250 Crore earmarked for Deen Dayal Divyang Xahajya Achoni which provides assistance for medical treatment of persons with disabilities. Around 1.4 Lakh differently abled persons received assistance of Rs 5000 per person in 2017-18.
  • Rs 400 crore allocated for Atal Amrit Abhiyan, which will cover about 92% of Assam’s total population one of the largest universal health assurance schemes in the world. With 1.6 crore beneficiaries already enrolled under this scheme, almost all major hospitals across India from Medanta Medicity to Apollo Bengaluru have been empaneled.
  • Rs 4 crore earmarked for Swastha Sewa Utsav and Gram Utsav to carry out an assessment of the Public Heakth Institutions of the State.
  • Inclusive Cancer Control Programme: A Partnership with Tata Trusts – An entire sum of Rs 980 crore has been allocated in one go, during the Financial Year 2018-19
  • Six Government Medical Colleges and 11 District Hospitals will be strengthened by 2019 to provide varying degrees of cancer care.
  • Each panchayat will be given Re 25,000 to organize Gaon Panchayat level Football tournament
  • Rs 5 crore each for installing flood lights in stadium in Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Karimganj, Diphu, Mangaldai, Tezpur & Tinsukia thereby strengthening rural sports infrastructure.
Wages, Salaried Class & Pension Schemes
  • Daily Wage of Home Guards to increase from Rs 250 per day to Rs 300 per day. The enhanced wages will start from FY 2018-19.
  • Rs 400 crore allocated for Universalization of Old Age Pension Scheme under PRANAM Act. A pension scheme that covers each and every senior citizen of the State, irrespective of whether they are above poverty line or below poverty line. Each elderly citizen will be entitled to a monthly pension of Rs.250 per month.
  • Financial assistance in form of a onetime grant of Rs 5 Lakh to families of the staff members who die in harness. Rs 45 crore against various societies.
  • Pension Scheme for Journalists- ‘Journalist Family Benefit Fund (JFBF)’ for providing financial assistance to the bereaved family members of journalists who may have lost their lives while on duty. Rs.100 lakh sanctioned for this purpose and also adequate Budget Provision for this are being made in the budget 2018-19.
  • UGC pay scales to Teachers across Degree Colleges, Universities and Technical & Medical Institutions.
  • Salary Hike for Contractual Teachers, to hike from 15500 to 20000.
Law and Order 
  • 6 tourist PS, 1 each at KazirangaNationalPark, ManasNationalPark (Barpeta), DibruSaikhowaNational Park (Tinsukia), NameriNationalPark (Sonitpur), OrangNationalPark (Rowta), and one at Guwahati.
  • Rs 100 crore in the financial year 2018-19 for Mission for Overall Improvement of Thana for Responsive Image (MOITRI).
Girls (Gender Budgeting)
  • Girls in Assam (age 12-20) with family income below Rs 5 lakh can avail of an annual stipend of Re 600 which will be directly transferred to her bank a/c linked to their DOB. Payments will automatically stop once they reach 20 years
  • Govt proposes to cover 5 lakh girls during the financial year 2018-19 under the monthly stipend for purchase of sanitary napkins. A sum of Rs 30 crore has been earmarked for this scheme.
  • New scholarship scheme for girl children belonging to the Minority Communities. Annual scholarship of Rs. 2,000, Rs. 4,000, Rs. 6,000, Rs. 10,000 for girl students belonging to minority community studying in class 10th, 11th-12th, graduation & post-graduation, respectively.
Business & Industry 
  • Rs 100 crore allotted to MSME Credit Guarantee Scheme wherein the amount will be parked in a credit guarantee fund and will cover upto 50% of the loan amount taken from scheduled banks and RRBs for loans upto Rs 50 lakh.
  • The guarantee will cover up to 50 percent of loan amount taken from scheduled commercial banks & RRBs for loans up to Re 50 Lakh.
  • Rs 17.5 crore to be allocated for revival of Sarthebari Bell Metal and other such industrial clusters. Rs 50 lakh subsidy for reopening a closed Cinema Hall and Rs 25 lakh as subsidy for renovating existing halls to be provided.
  • A subsidy of 25% of the capital cost for the establishment of New Cinema Halls will also be given
  • The budget proposed a levy of electricity duty at 5 per cent on ad valorem basis and 1 per cent increase on stamp duty registration fee for transactions in immoveable properties.
  • The budget also proposed to increase the tender fee from Rs 8.25 to Rs 100 for tenders up to Rs 20 lakh and Rs 500 for tenders beyond Rs 20 Lakh.
Infrastructure & Development Work
  • Rs 150 crore allocated for conversion of 1000 Timber Bridges across rural Assam into RCC Bridges
  • City Infrastructure Development Fund (CIDF): Rs 200 crore to be earmarked for improvement of roads and drainage in 8 cities (other than Guwahati), with the population above 40000 (Census 2011).
  • Uttoron State Government Signature Projects for Legislative Constituencies: Over next 3 years, Gov will select 2 villages in each of the 126 assembly constituencies which would then be supported as model villages with holistic, inclusive social & economic development as fundamental objectives. Under the Axom Adarxo Gram Yojana, Rs 50 lakh, therefore, to be allocated to each of the two model villages.
  • Construction of a 6 lane bridge with an estimated cost of Rs 1950 cr, which will connect Panbazar with North Guwahati.
  • Rs 15 crore earmarked for State Innovation Fund which will enable Deputy Commissioners to finance innovative grassroots solutions to local governance issues.
  • Rs 200 crore allocated for reconstruction and maintenance of Roads and RCC Bridges under the Axom Mala Program for State Highway and Major District Road Improvement and Reconstruction in line with ‘Bharat Mala’. The fund will also include continuous field data collection and sustenance of Road Asset Management System.
  • 18 Crore announced for Mega Skill City.
  • Rs 10 crore earmarked for infrastructure development of 100 Foreigner’s Tribunal offices spread across the state. Each FT Office will be receiving Rs 10 lakh each.
  • Rs 20 crore allocated as token provision to development of road infrastructure along labour lines in tea gardens.
  • 42 New Fire Dept Offices to be set up in Assam.
  • Token Amount of Rs 20 crore earmarked for Road Improvement Projects in villages under Sansad Adarsha Gram Yojana (SAGY).
  • Rs 68.54 crore allocated for equity infusion for expansion of Capital Projects Assam Petro-Chemicals Limited.
Environment & Sustainable Development
  • An amount of Rs 5 crore has been earmarked as seed money to create an Assam Climate Change Management Society to monitor Climate Change related matters and to co ordinate mitigating efforts.
  • Rs 8 crore allocated for a botanical garden at Kaziranga to put the state on the Orchid Map of the Country.
  • CM Adarsh Dweep Yojna – Special Scheme for Power Conservationm, 52 lakh families will get 4 bulbs each of 9W LED Bulbs.
  • Rs 91 Crore allocated for carrying out of NRC works for 2018-19
  • ssam Government has constituted a commitee to examine the anomalies in 7th APPPC report. The report is under examination and the grievances of the employees will be resolved shortly.
  • North East Foundation, which will act as a think tank for the region to be set up. Assam Government will take lead in establishment of this foundation and will provide seed funding as a goodwill gesture.
  • Rs 3 crore allocated for Social Media Presence for the Government Departments. Social Media Cell to be established in every department.
  • The famous flag lowering ceremony at the Wagah border in Punjab will be replicated at the international border points in Assam. Government has decided to develop border infrastructure on similar lines with an allocation of Rs 5 crore in four districts – Cachar, Karimganj, Dhubri and South Salmara.
  • Paying homage to the 140 martyrs of Patharughat peasants’ uprising on the rebellion’s 125th anniversary this year, the Assam government proposed a slew of incentives and schemes to help the farming community in the state. The last year’s budget also had focused on the agriculture sector, including the Chief Minister’s Samagra Gramya Unnayan Yojana (CMSGUY) which aims to double the farm income, and other measures such as Zero-Interest crop loans to farmers, financial incentives for farmers using Kisan Credit Cards. To activate inactive Kisan Credit Card accounts, a one-time cash incentive of Rs 3000 per inactive KCC holding farmer, if he renews the card.
  • Rs 5 crore allocated for development of Assam Bamboo Experience Centres (ABECs) at Assam Bhawans/ Houses in various cities alongwith Guwahati and district headquarters of the state.

NOTEAndhra Pradesh is the first state to introduce e-budget. The e-budget documents could only be accessed by the legislators and were not available in the public domain. But Assam Budget 2018-19 is the first one in India to be drafted with citizens’ participation and streamed on social media and is made available on Google app. The proceedings of the Assam budget presentation will also go live on Twitter and Facebook.


Download Assam Budget 2018-19 Highlights & Analysis – PDF


Rivers of Assam

Assam Geography - Assamexam


The State of Assam comprised of two valleys namely the Brahmaputra and Barak. The geographical area of Assam is 78,438.00 Sq. Km out of which 56,194.00 Sq. Km and 22,244.00 Sq. Km fall under the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley including 2 (Two) hill districts respectively. The flood prone area of the state is 31,500.00 Sq Km, which is about 39.58 % of the total area of the state and 9.40% of total flood prone area of the whole India.

River System of Assam

A) Brahmaputra river system

The main river of the valley, Brahmaputra is one of the largest rivers in the world and is a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. With 3,848 km in length, it is the 15th longest and tenth largest river in the world by discharge.

The river originates from the Kailalsh ranges of Himalayas at an elevation of 5300 M. After flowing through Tibet it enters India through Arunachal Pradesh and flows through Assam and Bangladesh as the Jamuna. It merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal.

The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin.

The river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means “son of Brahma”.

The Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The catchments area of Brahmaputra in Tibet is 2,93,000 Sq. Km; in India and Bhutan is 2,40,000 Sq. Km and in Bangladesh is 47,000 Sq. Km. The Brahmaputra basin extends over an area of 5,80,000 Sq. Km up to its confluence within Bangladesh.

The average width of Brahmaputra is 5.46 Km. The average annual discharge is about 20,000 cumec and average dry season discharge is 4,420 cumec. The river slope is very steep till it enters India. A drop of about 4800 M is achieved in a length at about 1700 Km. This average slope of about 2.82 m/Km in China (Tibet) gets reduced to about 0.1m/Km in Assam valley. Due to this sudden flattening of river slope, the river becomes braided in nature in the Assam valley. During its course in Assam valley from Kobo to Dhubri the river is joined by about 20 (twenty) important tributaries on its North bank and 13 (thirteen) on its South bank. Joining of these tributaries bringing high sediment load activates braiding.

The drainage area lying in India is 1,94,413 which is nearly 5.9% of the total geographical area of the country. The sub-basin lies in the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, West Bengal and Sikkim.

The most predominant soil type found in the sub-basin is the red loamy soil and alluvial soil. Other important soil types are sandy, loamy, clayey soils, their combinations and laterite soils. The culturable area of the sub-basin is about 12.15 M. ha which is 6.2% of the culturable area of the country.

Heavy precipitation occurs here from May to September. All its tributaries experience number of flood waves as per rainfall in respective catchments. If the flood of the tributaries coincides with the flood of Brahmaputra, it causes severe problem and devastation. The severity of flood problem of the state has been further aggravated by the acuteness of erosion on both banks of river Brahmaputra and its tributaries. Study reveals that an area of 4.27 Lakh Hectare of the state has been eroded by the rivers since 1950, which is 7.40 % of area of the state. The average annual rate of erosion is 8000.00 Ha. The world’s largest river island Majuli is also under the grip of erosion by river Brahmaputra and about 60 % of its original area has already been engulfed by the river.

The tributaries namely Subansiri, Ronganadi, Dikrong, Buroi, Borgong, Jiabharali, Dhansiri (North) Puthimari, Manas, Beki, Aie, Sonkosh are the main tributaries on the North while the Noadehing, Buridehing, Desang, Dikhow, Bhogdoi, Dhansiri (South), Kopilli, Kulsi, Krishnai, Dhdhnoi, Jinjiran are the main tributaries on the south bank of the river Brahmaputra.

The characteristics of the north bank tributaries are different than that of the south bank tributaries, which may be summarized as below –

The North Bank Tributaries:

  • Have very steep slopes and shallow braided channels for a considerable distance from the foot hills and in some cases right up to the outfall.
  • Have boulder, pebble and coarse sandy beds and carry a heavy silt charge.
  • Generally have flashy floods.

The South bank Tributaries:

  • Have comparatively flatter grades and deep meandering channels almost from the foot hills.
  • Have comparatively low silt charge.

Right Bank Tributaries of the Brahmaputra River


  Length (km)

Subansiri 442
Ranganadi 150
Baroi 64
Bargang 42
Jia Bharali 247
Gabharu 61
Dhansiri 123
Noa-Nadi 75
Nanoi 105
Barnadi 112
Puthimari 190
Pagladiya 197
Manas-Aie-Beki 215
Champamati 135
Gaurang 98
Tipkai 108
Godadhar 50
Balsiri 110


Left Bank Tributaries of the Brahmaputra River

  Rivers   Length (km)
Buridihing 360
Desang 230
Dikhow 200
Jhanji 108
Bhogdoi 160
Dhansiri 352
Kopili 297
Krishna 81
 Kulsi 93
Jinari 60



Barak River system

Barak is the second largest river system in Assam as well as in North East. The river with a total length of 900 km from source to mouth drains an area of 52,000 sq. km. The Barak is also a perennial river of the state.

It originates from Japvo mountain of Manipur hills at an altitude of 3,015 m, near the border of Manipur and Nagaland and forms a part of the northern boundary of the Manipur State with Nagaland where it is known as Kirong. Then it flows south through mountainous terrain up to Tipaimukh near the tri-junction of the three states: Assam, Manipur and Mizoram. Here, the river takes a hairpin bend and debouches into the plains of Cacher district of Assam and forms the border of Assam and Manipur states up to Jirimat. The river then flows through the Barak valley of Assam and then it enters Bangladesh where it forks into the Surma and Kushiyara rivers. From the source to the Indo-Bangladesh border, the Barak River flows for 564 km.

The local rainfall run off of the valley along with that of adjacent hilly areas flows through river Barak and its various tributaries and is drained out to Bangladesh. The Katakhal, Jiri, Chiri, Modhura, Longai, Sonai, Rukni and Singla are the main tributaries of the valley. The tributaries are mainly rain fed and cause flood problems when precipitation occurs.

The Barak sub-basin drains areas in India, Bangladesh and Burma. The drainage area lying in India is 41723 which is nearly 1.38% of the total geographical area of the country. It is be on the north by the Barail range separating it from the Brahmaputra sub-basin, on the east by the Na Lushai hills and on the south and west by Bangladesh. The sub-basin lies in the States of Meghalaya. Manipur, Mizoram, Assam, Tripura and Nagaland.

There are two major physiographic regions in the sub-basin, namely, the hilly region and the plain plains are thickly populated and extensively cultivated. The predominant soil types found in the sub-basin are laterite and red and yellow soils. The culturable area in the sub-basin 0.893 M-ha which is only about 0.5% of the culturable area of the country.



Some important north bank tributaries of Barak River



Some important south bank tributaries of Barak River



Statewise Drainage Area of Barak River
  • Meghalaya – 10,650  Km2
  • Manipur 9,550  Km2
  • Mizoram 8,280  Km2
  • Assam 7,224  Km2
  • Tripura 4,725  Km2
  • Nagaland 728  Km2

Total Drainage Area of Barak Basin- 41,157  Km2


Hydropower Potential – The Hydro power Potential at 60% load factor for Barak River is 3908 MW.

Major Projects – Tipaimukh Dam Project, Tista Champamati and Dhansiri barrages.