Geographically assam is situated in the north-eastern region of the Indian sub-continent. It covers an area of 78,523 sq. kilometers (approximate). Assam – the gateway to north-east India is a land of blue hills, valleys and rivers. She has lavishly bestowed upon her unique natural beauty and abundant natural wealth. The natural beauty of assam is one of the most fascinating in the country with evergreen forests, majestic rivers, rich landscape, lofty green hills, bushy grassy plains, rarest flora and fauna, beautiful islands and what not. The capital of Assam is Dispur and the state emblem is one-hoed rhino. Its literacy rate in 64.28%.
Assam is bounded by Manipur, Nagaland and Myanmar in the east and in the rest by West Bengal in the north by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh and in the route by Mizoram, Tripura, Bangladesh and Meghalaya.
The physiographic of Assam is one of the most enchanting in the country. It can be classified into three well-defined geographical regions
1. The Brahamaputra Valley
2. The Barak Valley
3. The hilly regions comprising the North Cachar Hills (Now Dima Hasao) and the karbi Anglong district which separate the two valleys.
The second natural division of Assam is the Barak or Surama Valley which is surrounded by North Cachar, Manipur and Mizoram. This valley is dominated by the Barak river. It flows through the valley and finally empties itself to the old bed of Brahmaputra in Bangladesh. This valley has hills and ‘Beels’ or lakes in plenty. Flood is a common feature lending the quality of fertility to the valley.
The Brahamaputra Valley and Barak Valley are separated by long range of hills. The Karbi Hills and the North Cachar Hills are located in the south of the Brahmaputra valley. Karbi hills are a part of the Meghalaya plateau. These hills are dotted with plain areas. Greenery is the hallmark of these hills, slowly reaching their full height towards the middle of the North Cachar district, merging with the Barail range-which is the highest hill range in Assam. The elevation of the Barail range varies from 1,000 to 1,200 metres above sea level. This valley is full of dense forest and rare wildlife.
Nesting at the foothills of the Himalayas, Assam is the place where one can find natural peace and solace. There are a few states in India which have such vast fertile valleys, dense forests, numerous rivers and lofty hills. Assam, is located about 79.5m above sea level: Sadiya 134m, Dibrugarh 104m, Guwahati 50m, Goalpara 37m, and Dhubri 28m.
Geographically Assam is a shadow of its former self. It has been reduced to one-third of its original size in thirty years’ time.
By virtue of its geographical location, Assam occupies a strategic position in the political map of India. The State forms the core of the north-easte region of the country and provides the focal points of transport and communication lines serving its neighbouring states.
Climate of Assam
Assam does not have the normal Indian hot, dry season. The temperature of Assam is moderate, about 84 degrees F in the hottest month of August. The average temperature in January is 61 degrees F. In this season there is heavy fog and bristles. Sometimes the rain occurs during March. From June onwards there will be Monsoon winds. Rainfall is highest in Assam. Annual rainfall varies from 70 inches in the west and 120 inches per year in the east. The heavy rain usually results in destructive floods.
Twenty percent of Assam’s total area is covered with forest. Deers, elephants, Royal Bengal tigers and wild pigs inhabit the forests. The important forest products are lac, timber, bamboo and firewood.
The state of Assam is situated in the heart of the north-east coer of Indian subcontinent. It is located in between latitude 24010’ N to 27058’ N and longitude 89049’ E to 97026’ E.
Assam is surrounded by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh on the north; Nagaland, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh on the east; Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura on the south; and Bangladesh, Meghalaya and West Bengal on the west. Assam is connected with the rest of Indian Union by a narrow corridor in West Bengal that runs for 56 kms. Below foothills of Bhutan and Sikkim.