The state of Assam along with whole Northeast India region is full of amazing valleys, Astonishing Waterfalls, dense forest and great hills and that’s why it’s also called as “The land of the Red River and Blue Hills”. Assam has numerous mountain ranges and hills which are home to wide range of flora and fauna.
Some of the major mountain ranges and hills located in Assam ( along with other neighboring states)
The Purvanchal Mountains or Eastern Mountains are a sub-mountain range of the Himalayas in northeast India covering the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
The range is an eastern extension of the Himalayan Range System, is north eastern India. It bends sharply to the south beyond the Dihang River gorge, and spreads along the eastern boundary of India with Myanmar.
The Purvanchal range includes the hill ranges of the Patkai Hill, Barail Range, Mizo Hills and Naga Hills.
The Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills are part of Shillong Plateau, and not part of the Purvanchal range.
A portion in the lower Himalayan mountains range is known as Assam Himalaya between the border of Bhutan and the Great Bend of the Tsangpo River. Yarlung Tsangpo River originates from Lake Manasarovar in Mount Kailash and known as Dihang river in Arunachal Pradesh. The range provides shelter to number of flora and fauna.
Namcha Barwa is the highest mountain peak of Assam Himalaya range. Namcha Barwa (7,782 m) is the highest peak of its own section as well as Earth’s easternmost peak over 7,600 metres.
Other high peaks include Gyala Peri, sister peak to Namcha Barwa; Kangto, and Nyegyi Kangsang.
The Patkai mountain range also known as Purvanchal Range, one of the eight mountain range in India and the major of India’s North Eastern states. Patkai Range is consist of three major hills, viz. The Patkai-Bum,the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia and Lushai Hills.
The Patkai hill range are not as rugged as the Himalayas and the peaks are much lower in height. Features of the range include conical peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys. The climate range from temperate to alpine due to differencies in altitude.
Three mountain ranges come under the Patkai. The Patkai-Bum (Burmese Kumon Taungdan), the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia, and the Lushai Hills, highest point Phawngpui Tlang, also known as ‘Blue Mountain‘. The Garo-Khasi range is in the Indian state of Meghalaya. Mawsynram and Cherrapunji, on the windward side of these hills are the world’s wettest places, having the highest annual rainfall.
The Pangsau Pass offers the most important route through the Patkai. The Ledo Road was built through Pangsau Pass as a strategic supply road built over the range during World War II to link India with the Burma Road into China.
Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills
The Khasi and Jaintia Hills are a mountainous region is a part Meghalaya, which includes the present districts of East Jaintia Hills district, West Jaintia Hills district, East Khasi Hills district, and West Khasi Hills district.
The hills of Khasi is the part of major Garo-Khasi range in Meghalaya and also the part of the Patkai mountain ranges. Khasi Hills got its name by Khasi tribes of the region.
Cherrapunji is the wettest place in the world is situated in the East Khasi Hills and Lum Shyllong is the highest peak(1,968 metres high).
The Jaintia Hills are located further to the east from the Khasi Hills.
The Garo Hills is located in Meghalaya state and part of Garo-Khasi range. It is one of the wettest places in the world. The range is part of the Meghalaya subtropical forests eco-region.
Nokrek Peak is the highest point of the Garo Hills region of the State, Nokrek Peak stands 1412 metres above sea level. The mother germo plasm of Citrus-indica have been discovered by science researchers within Nokrek Range. This discovery led to the establishment of the National CitrusGene Sanctuary-cum-Biosphere Reserve at Nokrek covering an area of forty seven square kilometres.
Tura Peak is a majestic hill stands on the eastern flank of Tura, the largest town in the Garo Hills region of the State. It peaks 872metres above sea level.
Balpakram is a National Wildlife Park, located in SouthGaro Hills and 167 km from Tura. It is home to the rare Lesser Panda, the Indian bison and the Stag like Serow.
Siju Caves is the famous limestone caves of Siju are located near Simsang River in Siju village.
The Lushai Hills also known as Mizo Hills is one of the three part of Patkai mountain range, located in Mizoram and Tripura. Mizo Hills is highly covered with dense bamboo jungle and rank undergrowth; but in the eastern portion, owing probably to a smaller rainfall, open grass-covered slopes are found, with groves of oak and pine interspersed with rhododendrons.
Phawngpui, also known as Blue Mountain is the highest mountain peak (elevation of 2157 m), located in Mizoram.
The Naga Hills are actually part of Indian Territory mountain ranges of Arakan Mountains between the western Burma and the Naga Hills district. The hills, due to their complexity and position, form a barrier between the India and Myanmar (Burma).
The Naga Hills, reaching a height of around 3,825 metres (12,549 ft). The highest point of Naga hills is Mount Saramati (3826 m).
Naga Hills is one of the major tribal region of Nagaland state and inhabited by Naga people.
Jampui Hills is a hill range located in the North Tripura district of Tripura. The average altitude of the hill range is approximately 1000 metres above sea level. Its habitants are mainly Mizo or Lushai.
The Jampui Hills stretch from North to South and are bordering the state Mizoram in the east.
Betalongchhip (930 m high), also known as Betlingchhip, Balinchhip and Thaidawr, is the highest point in Tripura.
Jampui Hills is famous for its unique Orange Festival, view of rising and setting sun and excellent panoramic views of the deep valley and villages around.
The Chin Hills is a range of mountains extends northward from Manipur to Chin State of Myanmar. Chin Hills are the part of Arakan Mountain Range with an highest peak of Nat Ma Taung with 3,053 m(10,500 feet). Chin Hills are very close to Lushai Hills of Patkai Range and offers a wide range of flora and fauna.
In the Second World War the hills formed a point of armed conflict between Japanese forces and a combined British and Indian force.
Mikir Hills are a group of hills located to the south of the Kaziranga National Park, Assam. It is part of the Karbi Anglong Plateau.
Daphla Hills is a tract of hilly country on the border of western Arunachal and Assam occupied by an independent tribe called Daphla. It lies to the north of the Tezpur and North Lakhimpur subdivisions, and is bounded on the west by the Aka Hills and on the east by the Abor Range.