Treaty of Asurar Ali (History of Assam)

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Treaty of Asurar Ali (1639) : History of Assam

In the early February 1639, The Treaty of Asurar Ali was signed between the Mughal faujdar Allah Yar Khan and the Ahom commander-in-chief Momai Tamuli Borbarua, during the reign of Ahom King Susenghphaa (also known as Pratap Sinha Singha or Burha Raja).

The treaty was an interim truce and ended Mughal efforts to drive into the Ahom kingdom that began in 1615, and followed a decisive Ahom victory over the Mughals at Duimunisila in November 1638.

According to the treaty, the boundary between the Mughal Empire and Ahom Kingdom was fixed on the Barnadi River in the northern bank (utarkul) of the Brahmaputra River and the Asurar Ali in the southern bank (dakhinkul), believed to be the Rajgarh Road in Guwahati, the causeway or the high Garh was in existence till late 60’s. According to the Treaty, western Assam commencing from Gauhati passed into the hands of Mughals.

The Ahom king recognized the supremacy of the Mughals in Kamrup, and the Mughal fauzdar agreed not to interfere in the Ahom kingdom. Trade and commerce between the two regions was permitted with the Ahom kingdom represented by Kanu Sharma and Sanatan, and the Mughal represented by Sheikh Meda.

Momai Tamuli Borbarua was instrumental in enacting an important treaty with Allah Yar Khan in 1639, which fixed the Barnadi river as the boundary and which formed the basis of Ahom-Mughal relations for decades to come. His foresight and courage was a great asset to King Prataap Singha. A Mughal envoy had once reported to his master: “O Saheb, what do say of Assam? The king is a veritable Mahadeva, and Momai-Tamuli is Mahadeva’s chief henchman or Nandi. As long as these two wield the affairs of Assam it is impossible to turn your face to that country.”