Month: February 2018

Arunachal Pradesh Govt Jobs 2018 – MTS, Driver & Other – 40 Posts


Power Dept Arunachal Pradesh Vacancy Details:
Total No of Posts: 40
Name of the Post:
1. Draughtsman Gd-III: 02 Posts
2. LDC-cum-Computer Operator: 17 Posts
3. Multitasking Staff: 17 Posts
4. Personal Assistant: 02 Posts
5. Driver: 02 Posts

Age Limit: Candidates age should be 18-30 years as on 29-03-2018. Age relaxation is applicable by 5 years for APST candidate, 10 years for Meritorious sports person as per rules.

Educational Qualification: Candidates should have minimum X class passed with 2 years in Draughtsmanship from a recognized institution or Diploma in (Elect./ Mech.) Engineering for post-1, 12th class passed or equivalent qualification from a recognized Board, basic knowledge in Computer Application and typing speed of 35 wpm on computer for post-2, 10th class passed or equivalent from a recognized Board/ institution for post-3, Graduation from a recognized Board or university, basic knowledge in Computer Application & Stenography speed of 80 wpm for post-4, 10th class passed or equivalent from a recognized Board/ institution with valid driving license for light/ heavy motor vehicle and 3 years driving experience for post-5.

Selection Process: Candidates will be selected based on written exam, stenography/ computer speed test.

Application Fee: Candidates should pay Rs. 100/- for Non APST, Rs. 50/- for APST candidates by Treasury Challan deposited under Head Account ’0801′ Revenue in favour of SE (E), APEC-I, DoP, Naharlagun.

How to Apply: Eligible candidates can send their application in the prescribed format along with attested copies of relevant documents, 2 copies of color passport size photograph, self addressed envelope Rs. 5/-, in a sealed envelope should be clearly Mentioned as “the Post Applied for ——–” to the Superintending Engineer (E), AP Electrical Circle-I-Cum-Coord, Department of Power, A Sector Naharlagun, Arunachal Pradesh-791110 on or before 29-03-2018 upto 16:00 hrs.

Last Date for Receipt of Application: 29-03-2018 upto 16:00 hrs


Click Here – Recruitment Advt & Application Form

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IBBI Recruitment 2018 – Officer Grade A – 18 posts

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) invites applications from Indian citizens for filling up the following posts of Officer Grade A (Assistant Manager):

Name of post: Officer Grade A (Assistant Manager)
No of posts : 
18 posts (UR-11, OBC-4, SC-2, ST-1)
Age : 28 ( OBC-31, SC/ST-33 ) years as on 01/03/2018
Educational Qualification :  CA / CS / CMA / LL. B. / MBA with Finance / Masters in Economics / Masters in Commerce

(a) Pass in Limited Insolvency Examination;
(b) Higher Qualification than Essential Qualification;
(c) Two or more of the essential qualifications

Pay : Rs. 28150-55600

Selection Process: Mode of selection will be On-Line Examination, Group Discussion and Interview.

Application Fee: ₹ 500/- plus GST (18%) to be paid online  (No fee for SC/ST/PWD candidates) to be paid online.

How to Apply: 
Candidates are required to apply on-Line through the website from 22.2.2018 to 14.3.2018 and no other mode of application will be accepted. Candidates need not submit the system generated print out of the ON-LINE application to IBBI’s office.

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Assam Govt Jobs 2018 – M & HO, Peon – 468 Posts

Medical and Health Recruitment Board Assam Jobs 2018 – Apply Online for 462 M & HO Posts: Govt. Of Assam, Medical and Health Recruitment Board, Assam has announced a notification for the recruitment of 462 M & HO-I vacancies. Eligible Indian Citizens may apply online on or before 05-03-2018. Other details like age, educational qualification, selection process , fee & how to apply are given below.

Total No. of Posts: 462
Name of the Post: M & HO-I

Age Limit: Candidates age should be between 21 to 43 years as on 01-01-2017. Age relaxation is applicable as per rules.

Educational Qualification: Candidates should possess MBBS Degree from any recognized university and registered under Assam Medical Council.

Selection Process: Candidates will be selected based on Vive-voce Interview.

Application Fee: Candidates should pay Rs.250/- for General category, Rs. 150/- for SC/ ST/ OBC/ MOBC candidates through Treasury Challan in the Head of Account “0210-Medical and Public Health-01-Urban Health Services-800-Other Receipt”.

How to Apply: Eligible candidates may apply online through the website & send hard copy of online applications along with Self-attested photocopies of Certificate / Mark Sheet from HSLC onwards and also Caste Certificate / Registration Certificate/ Experience Certificate, one copy of recent photograph to the to the Chairman, Medical and Health Recruitment Board, Assam, National Health Mission, Saikia Commercial Complex, Christian Basti, Guwahati-781005 on or before 05-03-2018.

Last Date for Submission of Applications: 05-03-2018.

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Economic Survey 2017-18 Detailed Analysis

Economic Survey 2017-18 - Assamexam 

Economic Survey 2017-18 – Detailed Analysis

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 Economic Survey of India
  • The Department of Economic Affairs, Finance Ministry of India presents the Economic Survey in the parliament every year, just before the Union Budget. It is prepared under the guidance of the Chief Economic Adviser, Finance Ministry.
  • It is the ministry’s view on the annual economic development of the country. A flagship annual document of the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. Economic Survey reviews the developments in the Indian economy over the previous 12 months, summarizes the performance on major development programs, and highlights the policy initiatives of the government and the prospects of the economy in the short to medium term.


 Chief Economic Adviser
  • The Chief Economic Adviser (CEA) is the economic advisor to the Government of India and the ex-officio cadre controlling authority of the Indian Economic Service. He/She is under the direct charge of the Minister of Finance.
  • J J Anjaria was the first CEA of India, from 1956-61.
  • Arvind Subramanian is the current CEA of India.


 10 New Economic Facts on Indian Economy
  1. Large increase in registered indirect and direct taxpayers – A 50 percent increase in unique indirect taxpayers under the GST compared with the pre-GST system. Increase in individual income tax filers as well and a large increase in voluntary registrations.
  2. Formal non-agricultural payroll is much greater than believed – India’s formal sector, especially formal non-farm payroll, is substantially greater than believed. This has increased the formal sector payroll share to 53% from the earlier 31% of the non-agricultural work force.
  3. States’ prosperity is correlated with their international and inter-state trade – States that export more internationally, and trade more with other states, tend to be richer. But the correlation is stronger between prosperity and international trade. States that export internationally and trade with other states were found to be richer.
    • 5 States of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana account for 70% of India’s exports.
    • India’s internal trade is about 60% of the GDP.
  1. India’s firm export structure is substantially more egalitarian than in other large countries
    Top 1 percent of Indian firms account for 38 percent of exports; in all other countries, they account for a substantially greater share (72, 68, 67, and 55 percent of exports in Brazil, Germany, Mexico, and USA respectively). And this is true for the top 5 percent, 10 percent, and so on. This is indicative of a better contribution from the smaller firms than in other countries.
  1. The clothing incentive package boosted exports of readymade garments – The Rebate of State Levies (ROSL) was announced in 2016, under which, the Centre gives garment exporters refunds against all the levies they shell out at the state level.
    • The relief was offered under the duty drawback scheme as part of the package for the garments industry in the GST regime.
    • The incentive package boosted exports of ready-made garments by about 16%.
  1. Indian society exhibits strong son “Meta” Preference – The survey highlighted that Indian society still exhibited a strong desire for a male child.
    • It pointed out that most parents continued to have children until they get number of sons.
    • This kind of fertility-stop-ping rule leads to skewed sex ratios but in different directions: skewed in favor of males if it is the last child, but in favor of females if it is not the last.
  1. There is substantial avoidable litigation in the tax arena which government action could reduce – There is substantial avoidable litigation in the tax arena which government action could reduce.
    • The tax department’s petition rate is high, but its success rate in litigation is low and declining (well below 30%).
    • A smaller share of total pending cases accounted for a larger share of the money value at stake (due to the tax dispute). E.g. 2% of pending cases – 56% of the value at stake
    • 66% of cases (each less than Rs 10 lakh) – 1.8% of the value at stake
  1. To re-ignite growth, raising investment is more important than raising saving – It was highlighted that growth in savings did not bring economic growth.
    • But the growth in investment did bring a substantial growth to the economy.
    • The survey thus emphasizes that raising investment was more important than raising savings.
  1. Own direct tax collections by Indian states and local governments are significantly lower than those of their counterparts in other federal countries
    1. Indian states and other local governments empowered for tax collection realise lesser collection than their actual potential.
  1. The footprint of climate change is evident and extreme weather adversely impacts agricultural yields
    • The impact of weather is felt only with extreme temperature increases and rainfall deficiencies
    • This impact is twice as large in unirrigated areas as in irrigated ones.

Economic Growth

Projections – The survey forecasts real GDP growth to reach 6.75% this fiscal. It is projected to rise to 7 – 7.5% in 2018-19. This could re-instate India as the world’s fastest growing major economy.

  • The Gross Value Added (GVA) at constant basic prices is expected to grow at 6.1 % in 2017-18, as against the 6.6% in 2016-17. Agriculture, industry and services sectors are expected to grow at 2.1, 4.4 and 8.3 percentages respectively in 2017-18.

Factors – The growth projections were based on the various reform measures undertaken in the recent years.

  • It includes GST, resolution of the Twin Balance Sheet (TBS) problem through IBC, recapitalization package for PSBs.
  • Also, with liberalization of FDI and export uplift from the global recovery, the economy began to accelerate in the second half.

Comparative performance – India’s average GDP growth during last 3 years is around 4 percentage points higher than the global growth. India’s growth averaged to 7.3% in 2014-15 to 2017-18 period. Lower inflation, improved current account balance and reduction in the fiscal deficit to GDP ratio are notable factors behind.

Way Ahead – The agenda for the next year to ensure a favourable growth trend

  1. stabilizing the GST
  2. completing the TBS actions
  3. reducing unviable banks and allowing greater private sector participation
  4. privatizing Air India
  5. staving off threats to macro-economic stability

Areas of policy focus:

  1. Employment – for the young and burgeoning workforce, especially women
  2. Education – creating an educated and healthy labour force
  3. Agriculture – raising farm productivity and strengthening agricultural resilience


  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) based headline inflation averaged to 3.3% during 2017-18. Many states have also witnessed a sharp fall in CPI inflation during 2017-18.
  • This is notably the lowest in the last six financial years. It has been below 4% for twelve straight months, from November, 2016 to October, 2017.
  • The CPI food inflation averaged around 1% during April-December in the current financial year. This has been possible due to Good agricultural production coupled with regular price monitoring by the Government. However, the recent rise in food inflation is mainly due to factors driving prices of vegetables and fruits.

Factors – The decline in inflation was broad-based across major commodity groups except Housing and Fuel & Light. In rural areas food was the main driver of CPI inflation and in urban areas, housing sector contributed the most.


Monetary Management

Monetary policy during 2017-18 was conducted under the revised statutory framework that provided for the MPC. The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) decided to reduce the policy Repo Rate by 25 basis points to 6%, in August. Monetary policy has remained steady during 2017-18 with only one policy rate cut made in August.

Liquidity – Post the demonetisation in November 2016, the re-monetisation process began from November, 2017. This set in a favourable base effect. Resultantly, the Y-o-Y growth of both Currency in Circulation and M0 turned sharply positive.


Tax Collections

The growth in direct tax collections of the Centre was at 13.7% during April-November 2017. The indirect taxes growth rate was 18.3% during the same period. The States’ share in taxes grew by 25.2%. This is much higher than the growth in net tax revenue (to Centre) at 12.6% and of gross tax revenue at 16.5 %.

There was a slow pace in non-tax revenue but the robust progress in disinvestment compensated for this.

There is a 50% increase in the number of indirect tax payers.


Banking Sector

Banking sector performance, the PSBs in particular, continued to be subdued in the current financial year. The new Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code mechanism is being used actively to resolve the NPA problem of the banking sector.

Non Food Credit (NFC) grew at 8.85% in November 2017 as compared to 4.75% in November 2016.

Bank credit lending to Services and Personal Loans (PL) segments continues to be the major contributor to overall NFC growth.

The NBFC sector, as a whole, accounted for 17% of bank assets and 0.26% of bank deposits as on Sep 30, 2017.


External Sector

The global economy is expected to accelerate from 3.2% in 2016 to 3.6% in 2017 and 3.7% in 2018. It reflects an upward revision of the earlier projections by IMF.

India’s balance of payments situation continued to be favourable in the first half of 2017-18 as since 2013-14. This is despite some rise in the Current Account Deficit (CAD) in the first quarter (Q1). India’s CAD stood at US $7.2 billion in Q2 of 2017-18, i.e. 1.2% of the GDP.

India’s trade deficit (on custom basis) had widened. It stood at US$ 74.5 billion in the first half of 2017-18. This is against a declining trend in CAD observed since 2014-15.

Engineering goods, and petroleum crude and products registered a good export growth. Chemicals & related products and textiles & allied products witnessed a moderate growth. Negative growth was recorded by the gems and jewellery.

Future Prospects for India’s External Sector in coming year look bright. The world trade is projected to grow at 4.2 % and 4% in 2017 and 2018 respectively, as against 2.4% in2016. The trade of major partner countries is improving, and India’s export growth is also picking up.

However, rise in oil prices is emphasized as a huge challenge in the coming period, posing a downside risk to trade. This could also lead to higher inflow of remittances which have already started picking up.

Supportive policies like the GST, logistics and trade facilitation policies could help balance the risks.


Foreign Direct Investment

FDI equity inflows registered a 0.8% growth in total during 2017-18 (April-October) and FDI Equity Inflows to the Services sector grew by 15%, mainly due to higher FDI in two sectors i.e. Telecommunications and Computer Software and Hardware.

25 sectors also including services activities and covering 100 areas of FDI policy have undergone reforms recently. At present, more than 90% of FDI inflows are through automatic route.


Trade Policy

Two important developments on the trade policy front during the year relate to:

  • mid-term review of Foreign Trade Policy (FTP)
  • multilateral negotiations of WTO in December 2017


Foreign Exchange Reserves – India’s foreign exchange reserves crossed over US$ 409.4 billion on end-December 2017. India is 6th largest foreign exchange reserve holder among all countries of the world.


Industrial Sector

Index of Industrial Production (IIP) (base year 2011-12) indicates industrial output increase of 3.2 % (April-Nov 2017-18). This was a composite effect of robust growth in electricity generation and moderate growth in both mining and manufacturing sectors.

Core Industries – The 8 Core Infrastructure Supportive Industries had a cumulative growth of 3.9%(Apr-Nov 2017-18). They eight core industries are:

  1. Coal
  2. Crude Oil
  3. Natural Gas
  4. Petroleum Refinery Products
  5. Fertilizers
  6. Steel
  7. Cement
  8. Electricity

The production growth of Coal, Natural Gas, Refinery Products, Steel, Cement and Electricity was positive during this period. While the production of crude oil and fertilizers fell marginally.

Reforms – These include the GST, IBC, and announcement of bank recapitalization. Make in India programme, Start-up India and Intellectual Rights Policy to boost industrial growth are also the reasons. Notable sectoral initiatives include anti-dumping duty, Minimum Import Price (MIP) on a number of items for the steel sector and Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana for the MSMEs.


Performance indicators

India jumped 30 places to enter the top 100 for the first time in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Report, 2018. It leaped 53 and 33 spots in the taxation and insolvency indices, respectively.

International ratings agency Moody’s upgraded India’s sovereign bond rating for first time in more than a decade.


Services Sector

The services sector continued to be the key driver of India’s economic growth. It has a share of nearly 55% in India’s Gross Value Added (GVA) and contributed almost 72.5 % of GVA growth in 2017-18.

Some of the notable areas include Tourism, Information Technology-Business Process Management, Real Estate, R&D, and Space.

India’s services sector registered an export growth of 5.7% in 2016-17. It remained the 8th largest exporter in commercial services in 2016 and has 3.4% of global share. This is double the share of India’s merchandise exports in the world which is 1.7%.

Enhanced global uncertainty, protectionism and stricter migration rules would be key challenges in shaping future services exports.

In the State-wise comparison of the performance of the Service sector in India. Out of the 32, in 15 states and UTs, the Services Sector is the dominant sector. It has contributed more than half of the Gross State Value Added (GSVA).

Services GSVA share ranges from over 80% in the case of Delhi and Chandigarh to around 31% in Sikkim. Services GSVA growth ranges from 14.5% as in Bihar to 7% in UP.



The Global Infrastructure Outlook forecasts around US$ 4.5 trillion worth of investments for India till 2040 to develop infrastructure essential for both economic growth and community wellbeing.

India certainly lags behind many emerging economies in terms of providing qualitative transportation related infrastructure. Addressing this is essential to provide better access and thereby enhancing economic activities.

The umbrella programme ‘BharatmalaPariyojana’ aims to achieve optimal resource allocation for holistic highway development. Government has taken steps for streamlining of land acquisition and environment clearances to expedite delayed projects.

Railways showed an increase of over 5% in revenue- earning freight traffic carrying during 2017-18 (upto Sep 2017). The pace of commissioning Broad Gauge (BG) lines and completion of electrification have been accelerated.

Over 400 kms of metro rail systems are operational across the country. And another 680 kms (appx.) are under construction in various cities across India.

Ports – The port-led development along Indian coast line is undertaken under Sagarmala Programme. Almost 289 Projects worth over Rs. 2 Lakh Crore are under various stages of implementation and development. The cargo traffic handled at Major Ports has shown a marginal increase in the last year, valuing to around 500 million tonnes.

Telecommunication – Programmes like ‘Bharat Net’ and ‘Digital India’ could convert India into a digital economy.

Civil Aviation – Domestic airlines has showed a growth rate of 16% (in terms of increase in passenger carrying) in 2017-18 (April – Sep 2017) over the previous year period. Initiatives like liberalization of air services, airport development and regional connectivity through scheme like UDAN are being taken up.

Power – All-India installed power generation capacity has reached well over 3.3 lakh MW till Nov, 2017. The Ujjawal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY) has focused on enhancing the financial health of DIStribution COMpanies. It has reduced their interest burden, cost of power and aggregated technical and commercial losses. Electrification in 15,183 villages has been completed. Saubhagya (Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli HarGhar Yojana), was launched in September 2017.

Logistics – The Indian logistics industry has grown at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8% during the last five years. The logistics sector provides employment to more than 22 million people.

World Bank’s 2016 Logistics Performance Index India improved to 35th rank in 2016 from 54th in 2014.

Housing – India’s housing policies have been mostly focused on building more homes and on home ownership.




The trend of ‘feminisation’ of agriculture sector i.e. increasing number of women in multiple roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs, and labourers. This is a consequence of growing rural to urban migration by men.

Women make presence at all levels of the agricultural value chain. Rural women are responsible for the integrated management and use of diverse natural resources to meet the daily household needs.

Importantly, the entitlements of women farmers will be the key to improve agriculture productivity.

Measures to ensure mainstreaming of women in agriculture sector:

  • earmarking at least 30% of the budget allocation for women beneficiaries in all ongoing schemes and initiatives
  • initiating women centric activities to ensure benefits of various beneficiary-oriented programs/schemes reach them
  • focusing on women self-help groups to connect them to micro-credit, ensuring representation in decision-making bodies
  • declaring 15th October of every year as Women Farmer’s Day, acknowledging the role of women in agriculture
  • Women farmers’ enhanced access to resources like land, seeds, water, credit, markets, technology and training is a necessity.
  • India needs an ‘inclusive transformative agricultural policy’ aimed at gender-specific intervention.


  • Indian Farmers were adapting to farm mechanization at a faster rate in comparison to recent past. In 1960-61, about 93% farm power was coming from animate sources, which has reduced to about 10%in 2014-15.
  • Indian tractor industries have emerged as the largest in the world. They account for about 1/3rd of total global tractor production.
  • According to the World Bank estimates, half of the Indian population would be urban by the year 2050. It is estimated that the percentage of agricultural workers in total work force be around 25% by 2050.
  • Intensive involvement of labour in different farm operations makes the cost of production of many crops quite high.
  • All these call for a more enhanced level of farm mechanization in India. This also significantly reduce the cost of operation.


 Land Holdings Consolidation

  • There is predominance of small operational holding in Indian Agriculture. The survey thus stresses the need for land holdings consolidation. This is especially essential for reaping the full benefits of agricultural mechanization.

 Interest Subvention

A sum of around Rs.20,ooo crore has been approved in 2017-18 to meet various obligations arising from interest subvention.

This includes those provided to the farmers on short term crop loans and also loans on post-harvest storages.

The crop insurance under Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) is being linked to availing of crop loans.

 Market Reforms

e-NAN – The electronic National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) was launched by Government on April, 2016. It aims at integrating the dispersed APMCs (Agricultural Produce Market Committee) through an electronic platform. It enables price discovery in a competitive manner to offer remunerative prices to farmers for their produce.

 Farmers’ Income

Economic Survey emphasizes the Government’s goal to double farmers’ income by 2022, using programs like Soil Health Card, Input Management, Per Drop More Crop in Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY), PMFBY, e-Nam, etc.


Agricultural R&D is important for sustaining agricultural productivity growth in the long-term. The compound annual growth rate of expenditure has been 4.2% over the years. New Varieties/hybrids tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses were released for cultivation in different agro-ecologies of the country. These have been developed for Cereals, Pulses, Oilseeds, commercial crops and Forage crops (for use as feed for animals).


Social Expenditure

The Expenditure on Social services by the Centre and States as a proportion of GDP stands at 6.6% in 2017-18 (BE). Components-based expenditure on social services in relation to GDP in 2017-18 (BE):

  1. Education – 2.7%
  2. Health – 1.4%
  3. Others – 2.6%

Significance – Priority to social infrastructure are stated as essentials to inclusive and sustainable growth. Bridging the gender gaps in education, skill development, employment earnings, reducing social inequalities find mention in the survey.



There is substantial improvement in the enrolment and completion rates of education in both primary and elementary school. There is also an increased percentage of schools which comply with Student Classroom Ratio (SCR) and Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) at the all India level. However, there are inter-state variations in adherence to SCR and PTR norms.

Gender Parity Index (GPI) at the primary and secondary levels of school has shown improvement.

RTE Act, 2009 is an initiative towards the goal of universalization of elementary education. Recent programmes like Beti Padhao, Beti Bachao are started to address gender bias in access to education.


Labour Reforms

The Survey mentions the technology enabled transformative initiatives such as:

  1. Shram Suvidha Portal (facilitate reporting of Inspections, and submission of Returns)
  2. Ease of Compliance (to maintain registers under various Labour Laws/Rules)
  3. Universal Account Number
  4. National Career Service portal (linking all employment exchanges)

These aim at reducing complexity in compliance and bringing transparency and accountability in labour laws enforcement.

Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Act, 2017, offers women entitlement to enhanced maternity leave for a period of 6 months.


India's gender gap in labour force

Mahila E-Haat is launched to provide e-marketing to products made/manufactured/sold by women entrepreneurs/SHGs/NGOs.

The legislative reforms in Labour sector include rationalizing 38 Central Labour Acts into 4 labour codes. They are the Codes on Wages, Safety and Working Conditions, Industrial Relations, Social Security and Welfare.

India’s gender gap in labour force participation rate is more than 50 percentage points, which is relatively high among many developing countries.

Women workers are the most disadvantaged in the labour market as they (a) constitute a very high proportion among the low skilled informal worker category, and (b) engaged in low-productivity and low paying work.

The lower participation of women in economic activities adversely affects the growth potential of the economy.

As per the ‘Women in Politics’ 2017 report:

  • Lok Sabha – 11.8% women MPs
  • Rajya Sabha – 11% women MPs
  • only 9% of MLAs across the country are women.

About 4.6 crore households were provided employment under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, out of this, 54% were generated by women.

Nai Roshni (leadership development programme for benefiting the women belonging to minority communities) is operational. Mahila Shakti Kendra scheme has been launched for leadership development and to address women’s issues at village levels.



The National Health Policy 2017 recommends increasing State sector health spending to more than 8% of the States’ Government Budget by 2020. Strengthening health delivery systems and achieving universal health coverage are the objectives.

Government healthcare providers accounted for about 23% of the Current Health Expenditure (CHE). This reflects the prominence of private hospitals and clinics among health care providers.

Out of Pocket Expenditure (OoPE) is around 62% in total health expenditure. The higher levels of Out of Pocket Expenditure (OoPE) on health adversely impact the poorer sections and widen then inequalities. Lack of affordable diagnostic facilities consumes a significant part OoPE.

Average prices of diagnostic tests widely vary across cities, despite government’s efforts to regulate prices of Drugs and Diagnostics.

The concept of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) helps analyse the disease burden and associated risk factors. It is the sum of years of potential life lost due to premature mortality and the years of productive life lost due to disability.

There has been significant improvement in the health status of individuals in India. Evidently, life expectancy at birth has increased by 10 years during the period from 1990 to 2015. States with higher life expectancy are reflecting lower DALYs rates i.e. lower incidence of diseases and vice-versa.

Malnutrition still remains the most important risk factor, despite the drop in rate from 1990. Integrated Child Development Services, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana, National Nutrition Mission are efforts at addressing this.

The contribution of air pollution to disease burden is high in India with levels of exposure remaining among the highest in the world. Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana is a measure in this regard.

The other key risk factors include dietary risks, high blood pressure and diabetes etc. These is a shift in disease burden from Communicable Diseases to Non-Communicable Diseases over last two decades.



Sanitation coverage in rural India is stated to have increased from 39% in 2014 to 76% in January, 2018. It is mainly attributed to Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) (Gramin) launched in 2014.

ODF – The number of persons defecating in open in rural areas has significantly declined, creating positive health and economic impact. So far, 296 districts and around 3 lakh villages all over India have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF).

8 states (Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Arunachal Pradesh, Gujarat) are declared ODF completely. 2 Union Territories (Daman & Diu and Chandigarh) also join this category.

The NSSO and Quality Council of India’s surveys reported more than 90% of individuals, who have access to toilets, using them.

UNICEF report, ‘The Financial and Economic Impact of SBM in India’, estimated that a household in an ODF village saves Rs 50,000/- a year.


Fiscal Federalism


  1. Difference in fiscal empowerment between urban and rural local government
    The Survey highlights the low level of tax collections by the Rural Local Governments in India. RLGs received about 95% of their revenues from the devolved funds from the Centre/State. RLGs in India generate only about 6% of revenues from own resources compared to 40% in Brazil and Germany.
    On the other hand, the urban local governments generate 44% of their total revenue from own sources. ULGs also collect 18% of total revenues from direct taxes, much closer to International norms.
  2. Less Direct Taxes collection
    Direct Taxes account for only about 35% in India as against 70% in Europe. Indian States generate only about 6% of their revenue from direct taxes as against 19% and 44% in Brazil and Germany respectively. Moreover, unlike in other countries, reliance on direct taxes in India seems to be declining.


State Governments have not devolved enough taxation powers to the Panchayats. Even in cases where more powers are devolved, land revenue collection remained low. This is due to low base values applied to properties and also low rates of taxes levied.

Other reasons are (a) unwillingness to tax by the state, possibly due to close proximity between the state and the citizens, (b) unwillingness by abled citizens to pay because of dissatisfaction with the quality of services, and (c)            Centre and States govt unwilling to their devolution powers to control lower levels of government.



The Survey emphasized the importance of fiscal decentralization. Fiscal decentralization is grounded on the idea that spending and tax decisions must reflect local preferences as far as possible. This is essential to address the issue of low tier governments remaining stuck in a ‘low equilibrium trap’depending largely on outside resources.


Financial Savings And Investment

India witnessed an unprecedented climb to historic high levels of investment and saving rates in the mid-2000s.

The ratio of domestic saving to GDP fell from the peak 38.3% in 2007 to about 29% in 2016.

The current slowdown where both investment and saving have slumped is the first in India’s history. India’s current investment/saving slowdown episode has been lengthy compared to other cases and it still continues. The cumulative fall over 2007 and 2016 has been milder for investment than saving. However, India’s investment slowdown is unusual.

There is a clear shift visible towards market instruments, largely driven by demonetization. Investment slowdowns are more detrimental to growth than savings slowdown. So, given the changing trend in savings side through recent measures, the need now is to focus more on investment revival.

The policy conclusion is urgent prioritization of investment revival to arrest the more lasting growth impacts.


Science & Technology

In 2013, India ranked 6th in the world in scientific publications and its ranking has been increasing as well. The growth of annual publications between 2009 and 2014 was almost 14%. This growth increased India’s share in global publications from 3.1 % in 2009 to 4.4 % in 2014. Broadly, the publication trends reveal that India is gradually improving its performance.

The Nature Index that assesses counts of high-quality research outputs ranked India at 13 in 2017.

According to the WIPO, India has the world’s 7th largest Patent Filing Office. However, India produces fewer patents per capita. One major challenge in India has been the domestic patent system. While India’s patent applications and grants have grown rapidly in foreign jurisdictions, the same is not true at home.


Sustainable Development

India’s urban population is projected to grow to about 600 million by 2031. The survey thus suggests Urban Local Bodies to generate resources through varied financial instruments like municipal bonds, PPPs and credit risk guarantees, to deliver on varied basic services.

Climate Change                                      

India’s commitment to environment and response to the threat of climate change in accordance with the principles of equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities. Also, with the “Paris Pledge” to reduce the emission intensity of GDP by 33-35% over 2005 levels by the year 2030.

Renewable energy

Access to sustainable, modern and affordable energy is the basis of achieving Sustainable Development Goals. The increasing share of renewables has tripled in the last 10 years. As on 30th November 2017, the share of renewable energy sources was 18% in the total installed capacity of electricity in the country.

International Solar Alliance (ISA) entered into force in December, 2017.


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Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam

APSC Mains Answer Writing (Polity) – Questions Set 25

Go to APSC Questions – Mains Answer Writing [Main Page]
APSC Questions - Mains Answer Writing - Assam Exam

APSC Mains Questions (Polity Special) – Set 25

Write answers to these Questions, Review others’ Answer, Ask Doubts and Discuss

Q1. Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of recent Right to Privacy issue. (250 Words)

Q2. Elaborate “Lord Ripon‘s Resolution of 1882 has been described as the Magna Carta of Local Self- Government in India.”. (250 Words)

Q3. Critically evaluate the achievements of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gurantee Act (MGNREGA). Also discuss it’s impact in rural India. (250 Words)

Q4. Short a note on Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958. (150 Words)


NOTE: Learners please write the answers and review others’ answer , which will ultimately improve the answer writer, reviewer and most importantly the answer itself.

Go to APSC Questions – Mains Answer Writing [Main Page]



APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam

Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains – Political Science 2015 Question Paper I & Paper II

It’s very important that we know the definite trend of question being recently asked in the Mains Exam. Thus, the Polity Paper I & Paper II of 2015 is given here, to give you a better idea of the areas/topics more question appears in the exam.



Q. Define political science and discuss its scope.Is political science simply a study of state and government.

Q.  What is the difference between behaviourism and post-behviouralism? Discuss the characteristics of behaviouralism in relation to  traditionalism.

Q. What is individualism ? Explain the arguments of JS Mill and herbert spencer in defence of individualism.Point out the weakness of individualism.

Q. What is laissez Faire state.In what respect does it differ from a welfare state?Discuss.

Q. Enumerate the essential features of Democracy.Bring out the distinction between democracy and Dictatorship.

Q. Explain Austin’s theory of Sovereignty.Examine the Pluralists attack on it.

Q. Plato s republic is not a work on politics but the finest treatise on education that has never been written. Explain and

Q. What, according to Aristotle, are the causes of revolution? Discuss the remedies he suggested.

Q. What is meant by liberty?Examine the relation between liberty and equality.

Q. Why is independent judiciary considered important in a democratic system?how can judicial independence be ensured? Discuss.

Q. Analyse Gandhi’s theory of trusteeship.Is the theory practicable.

Q. Elaborate Marxian view of state as an instrument of class domination

Q. Elaborate the function of a Socialist state

Q. Examine the challenges to sovereignty of the state in the contemporary world

Q. Discuss the nature and kinds of Authority.

Q. Write note on plato’s concept of Ideal State.

Q. Bring out plato’s view on emancipation of women.

Q. “State is prior to individual “.Discuss

Q. Write a note on Marx’s theory of class struggle.

Q. Examine Gandhi’s concept of swaraj.



Q. Discuss the constitutional developments during the freedom movement highlighting the importance of Nehru Report and Lahore congress Resolution.

Q. What are the provision for constitutional protection of right to freedom of religion and how far they succeeded in promoting
secularism in India? Discuss.

Q. Is it correct to say that the Indian constitution is ‘a ragbag of borrowings’?Give reasons for your answer.

Q. Examine the significance of the directive principle of state policy as laid down in the constitution of India. To what extent have these directive been implemented

Q. What are the different ways of acquiring Indian citizenship?How can Indian citizenship be lost ? Discuss

Q. Critically evaluate the emergency powers of the president of india and justify the emergency provision of the constitution of India.

Q. Discuss the superior position of the union in respect of legislative relation between the centre and the states in India.

Q. What are the major tension areas in Union State relation in India?

Q. Examine the changing structure of Panchayati Raj institution in India with special reference to the 73rd constitution Amendment Act.”

Q. How is the american President Elected?Discuss the powers and function of the president of USA.

Q. Analyse the composition and functions of the house of Lords.Do you agree that the House of Lords needs to be mended not ended.

Q. What is the composition of the security council of the UNO? What are its functions?Do you support the argument that there should be more permanent members in the security council of UNO ?Give reasons

Q. Explain the basic principles of the preamble to the constitution of India.

Q. How is the union council of minsters constituted?describe its composition.

Q. The problem of India bureaucracy is not that it is a bureaucracy, but that it carries too much baggage of the past.”Examine Discuss the role of the speaker of the Lok Sabha.

Q. Write a note on ‘role of law’ of british political system.

Q. Write a note on the powers and functions of US senate.

Q. Discuss the composition and Functions of Zilla Parishad under the Assam Panchayat Act,1994.

Q. Write a note on judicial activism in India.


Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam

APSC Mains – Political Science 2014 Question Paper I & Paper II

It’s very important that we know the definite trend of question being recently asked in the Mains Exam. Thus, the Polity Paper I & Paper II of 2014 is given here, to give you a better idea of the areas/topics more question appears in the exam.



Q. Comment on any three of the following :

1.”The state represents violence in a concentrated and organized form.The individual has a soul but the state is a souless machine,it can never be weaned from violence to which its very existence.”

2.”Popular sovereignty has no necessary connection with democracy. “

3.”The philosophical approach aims at evolving standards of right and wong for thr purpose of a critical evaluation of the
existing institution,laws and policies .”

4.Plato’s entire system of education in the republic is a prerequisite to the organisation of an idle state.

5.”The secret of Rousseau s doctrine is found in the sub stitution for a sovereign.His Sovereign is the ‘general will’ and he us perfectly ready to apply to all the sweeping attributes which Hobbes delivers to his ‘one man or assembly of men ‘.It is one and indivisible,inerrant,indestructible,omnipotent.”

Q. Critically evaluate behaviouralism in terms of tools and techniques of political inquiry,theory-building and contribution to  an inter-disciplinary approach.

Q. What is çredo of relevance ‘?Discuss it in the context of the post behavioural approach.

Q. Critically discuss the welfare state prespective regarding the functions of the state.

Q.  Is sovereignty absolute or divisible ?Which are the political and govermental arrangements that give rise to arguments of divisibility of sovereignty?

Q. Highlight the difference between the following :

1.seperation of power and division of power.

2.socialism and communism

3.nagative liberty and positive liberty.

4.procedural justice and substantive justice”

Q. Explain the pluralistic theory of sovereignty

Q. What do you mean by elitist theory of democracy?what are it features?

Q. Analyse the contributions of Aristotle to development of political science as an independent science.

Q. What is power and how is it related to authority?Does reliance on authority limit the use of power

Q. Highlight the significant contribution of the following thinkers :





Q.  Comment on any three of the following:

1. the crown is the ‘function of Honour ‘

2. India is a Quasi-federation

3.”The king is dead,long live the king”

4.The US president office is “one of the most powerful office ever created by a democratic nation “.



Q. Discuss the three colonial apparatuses still functioning in the Indian political system.Did the constitution of India blindly accept all the provision of the Government Act,1935

Q. Write an essay on the different constitutional arrangements adopted by the Indian state to accommodate its diversity.How far has India been successful in doing so.

Q. Answer any three of the following :

1.Do you think the 6th schedule is respnsible for increasing the hill plains gap?justify

2.Write on the features of the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992

3.Write on the division of legislative powers between centre and the state.

4.Give a brief outline on the BTC.

5.Write on the powers and functions of the speaker of the Lok sabha.

Q. Discuss the areas of conflict between the centre and the state.

Q. Make a comparative study between the american president and the british monarch.

Q. Is the office of the Indian President purely ornanental?Critically analyze it.

Q. Critically discuss the utility of the House of Lords in the British Political System.

Q. As a citizen of India,how would you support India’s candidature for permanent membership of the security council?
Justify your proposal.

Q. Analyse the functioning of the UNO as a peace Keeping international organisation.

Q. Write short notes on any two of the following :

1.Election commision of India.

2.Public Interest Litigation(PIL).

3.Loss of Indian citizenship.

4. APT 21″


Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam

APSC Mains – Political Science 2006 Question Paper I & Paper II

It’s very important that we know the definite trend of question being recently asked in the Mains Exam. Thus, the Polity Paper I & Paper II of 2006 is given here, to give you a better idea of the areas/topics more question appears in the exam.



Q. Comment on any three of the following:
1.”virture is knowledge ”
2.”political science beings and ends with the state ”
3.”…all peaceful beginings of government have been laid in the consent of the people. ”
4.” The Authority of the state rests on violence. ”
5.”State exists for the sake of good life,not for the sake of life only.”
Q. Define political science and examine its scientific character.
Q. Analyse the concept of power and discuss the nature of political power.
Q. Highlight the factors leading to the emergence of the concept of welfare state.What are the major function of a welfare state?
Q. Explain the significant features of a parliamentary form of government.How to distinguish it from the presidential form
Q. Highligh the relationship between any two of the following :
1.liberty and equality
2.truth and non violence
3.state and society
4.Democracy and human personality
Q. Explain the Gandhi concept of non violence.Examine the utility of the technique of non violent resistance in a modern state.
Q. Explain the process of withering away of the state in the light of Marxian theory of state.
Q. Analyse the plato’s theory of communism.How will you distinguish it from the modern concept of communism
Q. Discuss the causes of revolution in a state as indentifiedby Aristole.
Q. Highlight the significant contribution of the following thinkers.
1.Abraham lincoln
2.jean jacques rousseau
3.John Rawls
4.Harold J laski



Q. Comment on any three of the following :
1.”India, that is Bharat ,shall be a Union of States. ”
2.”At the commencement of the contribution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and who was born in the territory of India..shall be a citizen of India. ”
3.”No person who is a member of a Civil Services of the Union…shall be dismissed or removed by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed “.
Q. What is the utility of the Indian administrative service
Q. Justify the position of the Us president as the real chied executive
Q. Evaluate the role of the Civil Service in India.To what extent the civil service are commited to the welfare of the nation
Q. Discuss the areas of tension in the centre state relationship in the Indian federal system.
Q. Analyse the significant features of the American senate
Q. Write a critique on the powers and functions of the British Prime Minister.
Q. Discuss the role of the UNO in spreading human rights education amongst nations.
Q. Analyse the judicial sytem in India and justify the supreme court as the guardian of the constitution of India.
Q. Analyse the sources of the constitution of India.Is the constitution a bag of borrowing?Justify Your answer.
Q. Explain the directive principle of state policy in corporated in the constitution of India.To what extent these principles conform to the Gandhian thought.
Q. Answer any three of the following :
1.justiy Indian Democracy as a Representative democracy.
2.Forward arguments in favour of a strong centre in India.
3.Comment on the collective security of the Ministers to the Lok Sabha.
4.What is the role of the Governor of a state during President s rule .

Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam

APSC Mains – Political Science 2002 Question Paper I & Paper II

It’s very important that we know the definite trend of question being recently asked in the Mains Exam. Thus, the Polity Paper I & Paper II of 2002 is given here, to give you a better idea of the areas/topics more question appears in the exam.


Q.Comment on any three :
(a)’History without political science has no fruit,political science without history has no root.’
(b)”To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man…’
(c )”democracy is not a way of governing…but,primarly a way of determining who shall govern and broadly to what ends.’
(d)Í have no right to eat cake…if my neighbour is compelled to go without bread ‘
(e)’The inferiors revolt in order to get equility and equals to become superiors.’
Q. Discuss critically the social contract theory of the origin of the state
Q. Can the marxist theory sufficiently explain the origin of the state?discuss
Q. Discuss the meaning and dimension of liberty
Q. Define Democracy.Discuss the condition for the successful working of Democracy.Can it become successful in developing countries
Q. Distinguish between
(a)procedural and substantive justice
(b) De jure and De facto Sovereignty
(c)Civil and political liberty
(d)Unitary and federal forms of government
Q. What do you understand by sovereignty?What are its characteristics?
Q. Discuss critically the pluralist theory of sovereignty.
Q. Give an account of Aristotle s theory of justice
Q. Give an account of Plato’s idea of division of labour.
Q. Write short notes one any two of the following :
(a) Gandhiji concept of swaraj
(b) Marxist concept of Alienation
(c )Ideal state according of Aristole
(d) Plato s concept of justice


Q. Comment on any three of the following :
1. The state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.
2. The state shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.
3. the law declared by Supreme Court shall be binding on all courts within the territory of india.
4. No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or in any hazardours employment.
5. Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter enumerated in the concurrent List or state List.
6. Evry High court shall be court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself.
Q. Highlight the importance feature of the sixth schedule to the constitution of india.Do you recommend its application to plains tribal areas in Assam?give reason for Your answer
Q. Discuss the role of the civil service in the implementation of the rural development programmes in Assam.
Q. Explain the main features of American federal System and analyse the factors responsible for the growth in the power of the federal Government in the united states.
Q. Analyse the role of the UNO in the maintenance ofinternational peace and security.Suggest measures to make the future of the UN bright.
Q. What are the provision of the constitution of India which deal with Émergency Powers ‘ of the president ? Point out there effects.
Q. Discuss the basic principles of the preamble to the constitutional significance.
Q. Answer any three of the following :
1.The president of India is not a member of either house of parliament.yet he is a part of the parliament,explain.
2.Article 356 is the most unfederal provision of the constitution of India.It should be scrapped.Comment
3.India is not a nation but a conglomeration of nationalities.Do you agree?give reason for Your answers
4.Politics in NE India is highly influenced by the demand for ethnic autonomy.Comment
5.’A singular feature of the 74 constitutional Amendment is the new role assigned to the urban local bodies in the field of planning ‘.Comment

Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam

APSC Mains Answer Writing (Sociology) – Questions for Week 19-25 Feb.’18

Go to APSC Questions – Mains Answer Writing [Main Page]
APSC Questions - Mains Answer Writing - Assam Exam

APSC Mains Questions (Sociology Special) – Set 24 [ 19-25 Feb.2018 ]

Write answers to these Questions, Review others’ Answer, Ask Doubts and Discuss

Q1. Discuss how the institute of family is changing as per the demand of the modern society. (250 Words)

Q2. Write a notes with a sociological perspective on “Westernization and institutional changes in
India”. (250 Words)

Q3. Explain the factors responsible for change in Caste System in India? (150 Words)

Q4. Give an account of various tribes of Assam. (150 Words)


NOTE: Learners please write the answers and review others’ answer , which will ultimately improve the answer writer, reviewer and most importantly the answer itself.

Go to APSC Questions – Mains Answer Writing [Main Page]



Assam-Exam-sociology-test-series - Assam Exam

APSC Mains test series History optional - assamexam

APSC Mains polity test series - Assamexam